Unitarists start from a set of assumptions and values that hold workplace conflict is not an inevitable characteristic of relations between managers and employees. Conflict in the workplace may periodically emerge between the two, but such occurrences are believed to be aberrations in a relationship that is inherently prone to be cooperative. Those holding this perspective see managers and employees as having a common interest in the survival of their organisations, such that when conflicts occur it is unlikely to manifest itself to a point that will render the firm insolvent. Divisions that do exist are assumed to be the product of personality disorders, inappropriate recruitment and promotion practices, the deviance of dissidents, or poor
Basing his evidence on a psychological study, Zaleznik determines that managers are in need of working with people, i.e., to exercise power, as the presence of others IS a requirement of managerial authority. Furthermore, to rationally handle situations manager tend to invest lower amounts of emotions in their relations. In contrast, leaders tend to display empathy in their relations and rich emotions to fuel their passions and desires. This distinction shows that managers are appointed and leaders are made. Zaleznik then goes on to further emphasize the distinction on their respective emotional involvement in problem solving, where managers strive to order and stasis with no room for emotion and a leader to heavily invest feelings to their problems causing at times
Workplace deviant behavior can be defined as behavior that employees either lack motivation to conform to or become motivated to violate, normative expectations of the social context (Kaplan, 1975). Furthermore, (Bordia, Restubog and Tang, 2008) recommended that deviant behaviour is not an accidental but volitional. Individuals usually have certain motives when they involved in deviant behavior. In order to labelled some behaviour are deviant must go against the organization’s norms regardless to society’s norms. For instance, if an organization sanctions the purchase of prostitutes for an organizational functions such as was reported by Astra USA (Powell, 2002) this example are not in terms of workplace deviant behavior.
(as cited in Fitzsimons, A. (2011): 7) Foucault recognises the fact that when two or more people are engaged in some kind of activity power conflicts and struggles are unavoidable. However this means that socially excludes groups or marginalised individuals are also involved in the exercise of power. Rather than viewing power with discomfort, or as a negative concept terms of control, he sees the fact that everyone has a certain amount of power, meaning that power cannot simply be located with particular groups in society. His concept of power gives new air to the possibility of enabling in a productive dialogue on power that could be used to explore empowerment in customs that can be progressive and liberating.
And these factors have little related only with the job performance. This problem is called lack of objectivity. Employee appraisal that primarily based on the personal characteristics might let the company and the rater get into an unstable position. In short, the company may find hard to show the relationship between these factors and job. Halo error will distort the appraisal system too.
It involves making a free subject do something that he would not have done otherwise: power therefore involves restricting or altering someone 's will. Power is present in all human relationships, and penetrates throughout society. The state does not have a monopoly over power, because power relations are deeply unstable and
For example Renwick (2003) was concern about employee wellbeing and went further to say that seeking a strategic role as an HR practitioner rather than an operational role can actually jeopardies the welfare of employees. He mentioned that the in most cases line managers do not have the skills in managing people what they can do best is to represent the interest of employees in a more creative way. MacLeod & Clarke (2009) also emphasise that for a better performance of line managers there must be consistency in rolling out the HR policies and procedures to all line managers across the organisation. This is emphasized so as to align the performance goal and objective of the line manager with the key HRM focus. Studies have proved that the way staff members perceive HR practices is critical in determining the performance of staff couple up with the way we perceive the behaviour of the line manager (Truss, Soane, Alfes, Rees, & Gatenby,
The rationale for the realist theory is that the states care about the relative payoffs when they are jointly produced, since an asymmetrically advantaging state can have implications in negotiation and bargaining power among states and lead to further asymmetries. Hence, the problem of relative gains imbalances in a cooperative outcome leads to the realist theory of cooperative failure (Grieco, 1988). The neorealists emphasise two impediments of cooperation, the relative gains and enforcement. However, the neoliberalists disregard the former, which is argued to have real consequences on the understanding of the problem of cooperation (Snidal, 1991). These two views have implications on the how the states preferences are modelled in terms of utility.
Foucault warns against regarding power as “a phenomenon of mass and homogeneous domination” (29). Power is not something possessed by even the mightiest, but is relational, and hence present in all political relations, including dynamics of resistance. Resistance is not conducted against power, but through power, using it to resist political oppression. As Simons puts it, “Foucault offers an ethic of permanent resistance”
Authoritarian approach This is described by the fact that the MD is usually the person who has started the business and therefore has full control over the decision being made. This case is disproved by one of the company‟s, which is described later on. 12 2.3 System-oriented Supply Chain Risk Management Model As described by the authors, Oehmen et al , the System-oriented SCRM model was developed in order to reduce the complexities seen in the high number of elements and actors in supply chains, by applying systems thinking and system-oriented management techniques. The authors go on to state that it has been seen that current SCRM solutions “lack a systematic understanding of the supply chain risk situation” and it is therefore the reason why the model has been developed around systems thinking. According to the authors, the System-oriented SCRM model must have the following requirements [Oehmen et al, 2009].