Methods Formulation of chloramphenicol ophthalmic hydrogel Formulations was prepared according in Table 1. Poloxamer 188 and poloxamer 407 each weighed and dissolved with distilled water. Then stored in the refrigerator for 24 hours. Next chloramphenicol dissolved with propylenglicol, and nipagin. The mixture was stirred until the entire dissolved and homogeneous.
Grishma Patel Chloroplast Pigments and Colored Light Absorption Summary The purpose of executing this lab was to see how different wavelengths and colors of light are absorbed by chloroplast pigments. The goal was to see the variations of light dependant reactions of photosynthesis based on different types of light. Spinach was used by grinding it with acetone and acquire the thylakoids used in the experiment. DCIP was used in this experiment as the oxidizing agent that will turn blue to clear when in contact with light. The experiment required us to test first the relationship between wavelength of light and absorbance.
After which the digestions were examined by gel electrophoresis. The samples were run on a 50 mL 0.9% (w/v) agarose gel in 1X TAE buffer at 100 V until the leading track dye traveled 2/3 the distance of the gel. The gel was then soaked in GelRed for 20 minutes and examined under UV light. To prepare the digestions 10 μL of each digestion was mixed with 2 μL of 6X track dye in a micro centrifuge tube. 12 μL of 1 kb DNA ladder and each digestion was run on the
Journal (American Water Works Association), 156-162. Matilainen, A., Gjessing, E. T., Lahtinen, T., Hed, L., Bhatnagar, A., & Sillanpää, M. (2011). An overview of the methods used in the characterisation of natural organic matter (NOM) in relation to drinking water treatment. Chemosphere, 83(11), 1431-1442. Vieira, R. F., Berenguel, A. T., Silva, M. A., Vilaca, J. S., Domingues, V. F., & Figueiredo, S. A.
Acetonitrile at a PH of 7 (neutral) is added to each of the test tube samples. Mix the samples on a vertex shaker for 3 minutes and transfer to a 20 ml centrifuge tube and place in a TurboVap under 5-psi nitrogen at room temperature and allow it to completely dry. The dry resides are now put in 1ml of acetonitrile for testing (analysis). 4. Chromatographic Condition 10ml of the extract is now taken to be analyzed using a mass spectrometer and a liquid chromatograph.
500gms of fresh beetroot or its hairy root has to be homogenized with sand continuously for three times in 70% ethanol (100mg/L).Then extracts will be centrifuged at 10xg for half an hour and supernatants will be allowed to vaporise at 40°C under vacuum till they get dried. Then, the residues will be dissolve in 0.5L of 70% of methanol and this sample-methanol mixtures keep in refrigerator at -20 degrees for 24hr, consequently thawed and supernatants are carefully collected from the precipitate. Under vacuum, methanol will be evaporated, at 40°C, from the supernatants and following betalains are lyophilized from aqueous fractions and finally 6.5gms of dry betalains will be obtained (Christ, Alpha 1-2,
Crystal violet was then added for 60 seconds before being washed off with water. The mordant, Gram’s Iodine, was added for another 60 seconds before getting washed off with water. The heat fixed smear was then washed with 95% alcohol until the wash ran clear, leading to the final step of adding Safranin for 45 seconds before being rinsed with water. The slide was finally blot dyed with bibulous paper before it was placed under a microscope to observe the color and shape of the bacterium. 2.2 Litmus Milk Reaction A milk-based, litmus broth tube is incubated and observed after 48 hours.
One millilitreer of the lichen extract (1 mg/mL) in a volumetric flask was diluted with distilled water (46 mL), and the content was mixed in a volumetric flask after adding. oOne millilitreer of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent was added and the content of the flask was mixed. thoroughly . After 3 min, 3 mL of 2% sodium carbonate (2 %) was added and then was allowed to standleft for 2 h with intermittent shaking. The reaction absorbance of prepared mixture absorbance was measured at 760 nm in a spectrophotometer (Jenway UK).
Cell culture Caco-2 cell was provided (passage 32–36) by School of Pharmaceutical Science at Sun Yet-Sen University. Cells were grown in an atmosphere of 5% CO2 and 90% relative humidity at 37°C. They were routinely maintained in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM) containing 4.5 g/l D-glucose, 10% fetal bovine serum, 1% nonessential amino acids, 1% L-glutamine, 1 mM Sodium pyruvate, 100 U/ml penicillin, and 100 g/ml