This is shown as they state “putting a black man in charge of a mostly white department that serves a town where African Americans make up two-thirds of the residents.”. The emphasis on the race of the department creates a negative connotation towards the department as they are compared to the race of the residents. This comparison creates a feeling of an unequal situation within the city, instead of focusing if the man is the most suitable person for the job the writer refers to his race as creating a balance. Even though the race should not be important, the writer mentions it as if it is. Another quote which reflects the different races is “Ferguson’s leadership was mostly white at the time of Brown’s death.
Literature Review Lee et al. (2007) argues that racial profiling has become a leading issue for law enforcements which has been driven by the public and political interest. Lee et al, (2007), also states that race is used as a justification in police decision making during discretionary traffic and field stops, this usually relates back to racial profiling. Racial profiling takes place when law enforcement officers rely solely on race, ethnicity, national origin, or religion as one of the many factors in determining who to stop and search (Lee et al, 2007). However, race is only one part of the suspicion aspect along with other factors such as gender, age, general appearance and behavior.
Throughout history, disputes and tensions between law enforcement officials and communities of minorities have endured hostility and violence between each other. Racial profiling has become a “hot topic” for researchers as well as for politicians and by now it is likely that most citizens are at least aware of the common accusations of racial bias pitted against law enforcement (Cochran & Warren, 2013). Communities of color are being discriminated against and racially profiled by white police officers for any suspicion of criminal activities. It has been widely assumed by policy makers and citizens alike that allegations of racial profiling are mostly associated with the policing practices of white officers and their treatment of racial and ethnic minorities (Cochran & Warren, 2013). Also, individuals of minority descent will certainly recognize that they are being racially profiled during a stop that is being conducted by a white police officer.
For example, descriptions of black citizens ' mistreatment by the police are abundant in some African-American communities. Regardless of their accuracy, the dissemination of these narratives increases the likelihood that neighborhood residents will come to view local policing strategies as racially biased (Weitzer, 2002). Feagin 's (1991) examination of racial discrimination highlights the importance of understanding the impact of accumulated discriminatory experiences. One of the most reliable findings in research on attitudes toward police is that citizen distrust is more widespread among African-Americans than whites. Residents of disadvantaged communities have a considerable risk of experiencing direct and indirect contact with police
“From the failure of national data collection monitoring systems to accurately capture the number of cases of extrajudicial killings by police, to the reluctance of the criminal justice system to appropriately indict police officers who intentionally profile and purposefully use deadly force, the United States faces a crisis in the policing system, and the most vulnerable victims are Black males” (Hakim
Racial invariance positions and sociological viewpoints on race and race contrasts in conditions and should account for the racial composition or black effect on level violence rates. Examination led in 1990 gives blended or opposite confirmation to this position, demonstrating that greater concentrations of blacks are connected to increased violence after accounting for racial differences in socioeconomic conditions. Black violent crimes is highly relevant in today’s society. Most crimes are committed by African Americans due to many factors but where are these factors taking place and who else is taking place in these crimes other than the targeted ethnicity.
This argument connects to the theory of Law in the Book vs. Law in Action, and relates to how this type of discrimination from the law affects society. In particular, the way the Law is written in codes, statutes, judicial opinions that supposedly support the righteousness of justice, is a far cry from the way the Law actually operates. Despite substantial progress in recent years, racial discrimination remains a significant problem in the United States. I will prove this argument with the help of various peer-reviewed articles, and non-scholarly article that examine this unequal behavior.
This is what started the Blue Lives Matter movement, a movement for police officers to be protected. Due to a spike in police deaths the government imposed harsher laws against assaulting, harming, or killing a police officers. The BLM community is concerned because they feel like they are taking a step backwards in the relationships between the community and its people with the local police officers. Lots of people are saying that the movement is unjust because they believe that “All Lives Matter,” but the movement is just simply pointing out that African Americans are being wrongfully targeted and killed. The movement is trying to prove that all of our lives should be equal not one life is better than the
The research conducted in the study and article clearly shows that within cases where a taser is used to subdue a suspect or offender, people of African American race are more predominate to have this use of physical force used on them in contrast to other racial ethnic groups. This establishes that in police culture there is a stereotype that has formed that use of a taser is needed when some sort of resistance has occurred by someone of African American race. This may have formed from multiple civil unrests that have happened recently regarding and sometimes including African American people, or it could possibly be an officers own prejudice at times. Even though these events may show dangerous actions that happen from racial ethnic groups
The consequences faced by black people due to racism are racial hate crime and racial based crimes. Kahl (2013, September 1) writes that we used a racial hate crime in light of the fact that higher quantities of contemptuous unlawful acts target African Americans: In 2009, 48.5% of the reported single-bias hate criminal acts were racially based and 71.4% of those law infringements were represented as being against black (U.S. Department of Justice, 2009). The percentage of hate crimes are higher against African Americans. The hate criminal acts were racially based and were mostly against black. For example, departments of public safety on college campuses also play a role in creating awareness, given that in 2009, 11.4% of reported hate crimes occurred at schools or colleges (U.S. Department of Justice, 2009) and both victims and perpetrators are often young adults (Craig & Waldo, 1996; Downey & Stage, 1999).Other consequence faced by blacks is racial based crimes.
Stereotypes also play a huge role in the law enforcement. Due to stereotypes that black or latino people are more prone to commit crimes, racial profiling is common among police officers. Numerous cases of police brutality and statistics revealing a biased justice system raises concerns about the reliability of the nation 's authorities. Zillah Eisenstein connects racism to physical bodies in Beyond Borders by explaining that "racism uses the physicality of bodies to punish, to expunge, and isolate certain bodies and construct them as outsiders" (Eisenstein). Many officers tend to convict minorities more often than whites according to this same logic.
In the Criminal Justice System of the United States, there has been a disparity affecting African-American communities and minority groups. Minorities perceive themselves as the main targets of police use of force, racial profiling, and a bias culture within law enforcement. The central argument, is that such actions have an impact on the relationship between police officers and the African American community, causing problems in our society. But does history explain why law enforcement has developed a negative relationship with African-Americans? In our democratic era, police officers are considered a walking symbol of safety and protection.
In order for there to be change the judicial branch needs to decide if random stop and frisk (mainly targeted towards minorities) is constitutional. Not only does it degrade that person but it also violates the person’s right of being treated with equality. The reason why cops racially profile black people or minorities is because of their material and non-material culture. When cops see a black man wearing a hoodie their minds are already wondering what is he up
However, the race is considered a salient predictors of the attitudes towards the police institutions. The blacks are likely to be affected than the whites because of race imbalance. Less is known about the views of other races though existing studies show that race is something that is significant in explaining police brutality. As a fact, racial differences is something that is common in the relations of the citizens with the police (Chaney and Robertson 110). In explaining the accounts for the racial differences, the paper will utilize the group-position model of race relations.
Wise’s statement that those at the bottom are there because of those at the top, is just not that simple. There are multiple factors to consider when looking at the obvious disparities between groups. Thomas Sowell does a great job exploring the numerous factors that can potentially come into play when trying to make sense of disparities. Within his book Race and Intellectuals, he brings up factors such as historical, geographic, and demographic evidence, along with supporting statistical evidence. He makes the point, “at various times and places, foreign minorities have predominated in particular industries or occupations over the majority of populations.