West Chicken Fat Case Study

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Esterification of west chicken fat using heterogeneous acidic catalyst toward biodiesel production; application of Sulfonate MWCNT
Ali. Shokuhi Rad*a, Mahtab Hoseini Nia b, H. Nayebzadeh c

[a] Department of Chemical Engineering, Qaemshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr, Iran
[b] Department of Chemical Engineering, Shahrood Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahrood, Iran
[c] Department of Chemical Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, IRAN
* Corresponding Author E-mail Address:
a.shokuhi@gmail.com a.shokuhi@qaemshahriau.ac.ir
Tel: 0098-9112134588
Fax: 0098-32367735
Abstract
We used transestrification of Sunflower oil (SFO) and west chicken fat (WCF) toward biodiesel (BD) production. Prior to transestrification
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The spectra of the analyzed samples were recorded using a PERKIN ELMER 16F PC FT-IR instrument. Samples for FT-IR measurements were supplied by crushing dry material into KBr. The morphology of the MWCNTs was studied by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). SEM measurement was carried out on the XL30 Philips Electron Microscope

2.3. Transstrification parameters
The methanol and catalyst were stirred about 10 min separately and then transferred to the reactor for transestrification. The final mixture was stirred constantly to produce BD as soon as the temperature reached to proper. After the transesterification reaction, the reaction mixture transferred to the settle tank. The mixture was settled overnight and the glycerol layer was separated by decanter. The upper oil layer was the crude BD and the down layer was crude glycerol. The crude BD was washed with warm water and was subjected to a heating under vacuum to eliminate excess methanol and water.
The alkali catalyzed process included four levels of methanol to oil ratio, 3, 6, 8 and 10; Five levels of catalyst (KOH), 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3 (%, w/w, oil), four levels of reaction time, 30 min, 60 min, 3 hour, 10 hour.
2.4. Esterification
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It is well recognized that the FFA level of oil ought to be reduced to less than 1% previous to using the alkaline catalysis [23,24]. We used two acidic catalysts; sulfuric acid as homogeneous catalyst and MWCNT-SO3H as heterogeneous catalyst were used with methanol toward esterification of WCF. Some researchers used two step pretreatment processes to reduce the high level of FFA [25,26]. Based on their work, after the first action, the reaction mixture is permitted to settle. Because of inhabitation property of water toward complete reaction, the methanol and water mixture is separated from the oil phase. Afterward, further methanol and acid catalyst can be added and the reaction continued for the next step. We should note that if the number of pretreatment steps be increased, the ester yield reduces owing to the solubility of ester in methanol [27]. For that reason, in this study, we tried to reduce the FFA level through one step pretreatment to achievement high ester yield and also save the time for producing BD. After each esterification, total WCF was washed twice with hot and distilled water to eliminate any reminded acid in

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