Wetlands In South Africa

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Review of literature- section A Source A: SA Wetlands under threat South Africa’s wetlands are the most threatened ecosystem in the country. The National Biodiversity Assessment 2011 (NBA 20011) has found. a) The most threatened ecosystem in SA is the wetlands. A few of our provinces, Gauteng being one of them was expected to have no natural vegetation outside the protected areas. Mining which causes pollution is a reason for loss of natural vegetation, causing these wetlands to be under threat. It was said failure to protect our biodiversity in wetlands is basically self-defeating as everyone will be at a loss in the end as many communities are directly dependant on biodiversity and ecosystem services. Therefore making wetlands important…show more content…
Result would be and algal bloom. Alga can be very toxic to animals and can deplete water of oxygen suffocating fish. Pollutants will find a way into the wetlands from mines or processing plants, industrial areas and through accidental oil spills. Visitors to rivers and rock holes pollute wetlands by throwing rubbish in the water or swimming in there with lots of sun screen on or insect repellent on. These chemicals will wash off and affect the water as the substances can be harmful and could reduce the water quality. Invasion of exotic plant species into wetlands and create large ecosystem changes. The introduced species can create monocultures, and outsource native plants and reducing habitat availability. Weeds also prevent fauna from accessing the water therefore causing the indigenous plants reduce in numbers. Fires, floods and droughts are natural damages to wetlands. Fires cause massive change in habitat of wildlife. Floods and droughts impacts natural water regime of water body and…show more content…
Chemical pollution caused by mines and industries. Sewage collection into wetlands. Increase in fertilizers to grow crops as a result an increase in nutrients in the water which would cause eutrophication. Also litter in wetlands which could cause diseases of consumed by the aquatic animals. There is also deforestation. The clearing of land for agriculture that often leads to water pollution, when soil is stripped of its vegetation it becomes prone to soil erosion, which leads to increase in murkiness of water which causes the block of the gills of fish. Plants at the bottom cannot then photosynthesize as the sun’s rays do not reach them. Increase the disease as bacteria uses soil particles as a method of transportation to the water. Then there is destruction of wetlands. As wetlands is nature’s way of cleaning water. Destruction of wetlands destroys habitats of fish. It removes natural filters that store and degrade many pollutants. There are industries that produce waste that can effect in a way of the pH of the soil if it’s acidic, alkaline or balanced. The amount of nutrients if increased could cause eutrophication. Too much salts and minerals can cause health problems, effects of mining are the same. There is also agriculture which can cause an increase in nutrients because of the

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