What Are Gender Stereotypes In Advertising

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1. Introduction
We live in the era of mass media, where advertisement is almost unavoidable as it is displayed in magazines, television, internet and radio. This, however, poses an issue due to an existence of gender stereotypes in commercials and these might have a negative influence on one’s self esteem (Daniels 2009, 401). Gender stereotypes are gender-based believes about appropriate appearance or behavior of a human. Current paper is aiming to investigate this issue, because gender stereotypes can be unfair and might convey a misleading message. This research work will demonstrate that the most vulnerable groups of population are adolescents as they have not formed their self-perception to the full extent; at the same time, gender stereotypes
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As for example, commercials on American MTV channel tend to portray women having fit bodies in 77.4% of cases and wearing suggestive or extremely revealing clothing in 53.8% of cases compared to 93.5% of neutrally dressed male characters (Signorielli, Mcleod, and Healy 1994). Furthermore, women in advertisements fall into younger age category than males and they are 3.5 times more likely to be portrayed in home environment compared to men portrayed predominantly in work environment (Prieler 2015, 280-281). It is possible to assume that advertisements on American television in many cases place emphasis on attractiveness of a woman and her role of a housekeeper, while men are stereotypically assumed to be examples of corporate…show more content…
This idea was justified in the work of Tortajada (2013, 180), where links between an advertised image and social media profile pictures were compared. His research suggests that a popularity of photos where a girl smiles more openly, gently touches objects around her or herself, appears thoughtful and disoriented could be explained by an active advertisement of such tender and vulnerable role model. Meanwhile, males fall under the pressure of “sixpack advertising” and popularization of alpha-male image according to the same research. Another study by Daniels (2009, 415) claims that an advertisement of non-sexualized female athletes can motivate adolescent women without degrading their self-esteem, while sexualized depiction of athletes and non-athletes negatively affects satisfaction with their own body. Stice and Shaw’s study of 2002 published in Journal of Psychosomatic Research have demonstrated that “individuals who experience severe dissatisfaction with their appearance are at risk for eating disorders, which can seriously negatively impact both psychological and physical health” (cited in Daniels 2009, 401). Considering males aged 18 – 25, it was discovered that they take the ideal body image portrayed by media as a standard which will allow them to attract females, but this

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