Real deviation:-This deviation from the law occurs at high concentration of the absorbing species. The absorptivity ε of the solution changes with concentration depending on the refractive index η of the solution and since refractive index varies considerably at concentration higher than 10-3 M, absorptivity also varies. Beer-Lambert law is based on the assumption of an incident beam of monochromatic radiation and even the best monochromator system provides only polychromatic beam of radiation spread over a few wavelengths. 2. Chemical deviation: - This deviation occurs due to presence of more than one absorbing species in the sample.
The density of a medium is an example of an inertial property. The greater the inertia (i.e., mass density) of individual particles of the medium, the less responsive they will be to the interactions between neighboring particles and the slower that the wave will be. As stated above, sound waves travel faster in solids than they do in liquids than they do in gases. However, within a single phase of matter, the inertial property of density tends to be the property that has a greatest impact upon the speed of sound. A sound wave will travel faster in a less dense material than a more dense material.
The different amount energies released results in different color. This reason is the same reason that different elements have different line spectra. The quantum theory says that a certain amount of energy has be released or absorbed and Bohr 's said the same but with restrictions. The quantum theory would explain the vast differences in energy in color. The reason atoms need heat is because heat gives the atoms energy which causes them to move to an excited and then back to ground state.
In seismic data, depth is normally measured in two-way travel time in milliseconds or seconds. This is the time the sound waves use from it leaves the source until it hits the reflector and returns to the receiver. With the increase in depth, the frequency of the signal will decrease while the velocity and wavelength will increase. This means that with an increase in depth the seismic resolution gets poorer. The high frequencies are reflected from shallow reflectors, while the low frequencies reach further down.
Refraction: Refraction occurs when light enters a more or less optically dense medium, which therefore has a different refractive index (measure of the velocity light can travel at in the medium compared to in a vacuum in which it can travel at 2.9 x 108ms-1). This causes the light’s speed to increase or decrease, which results in the rays bending towards or away from the normal, so the position of the image formed is dependent on the refractive indices of the two media. For refraction to occur, the light rays have to hit the boundary between media at an angle to the normal (which is 90 degrees to the boundary), otherwise no change in direction will occur, only a change in velocity. Therefore, if the light rays hit the boundary between the different media at a perpendicular (90 degree) angle, they will continue to go straight. This occurs because the angle at which the rays hit the boundary (called the angle of incidence) determines the angle at which the rays will refract (called the angle of refraction).
There are three types of cones in our retinas. These three receptors each contain a different pigment. The pigments differ slightly in their chemical properties and subsequently in their relative ability to absorb light of different wavelengths. These cones are loosely called "blue", "green", and "red" as they are supposed reflect their peak sensitivities on
Both mole of HCL(the 2 moles of HCL and the 1 mole of HCL) have less energy , and thus when the 3 moles of HCL reacts with Mg, there is even more energy between the Mg and the HCL particles, so hence the rate of the reaction will be faster. Sources of Error: What could have been done is more trials to make sure
This image shows how different filters affect the way colours are converted to black and white: USING BLACK AND WHITE FILTERS Because of their different effects, each colour filter tends to be used in a different way. RED FILTER Red filters produce a very strong effect and greatly increase contrast. They’re often considered too “harsh” for most types of photography, but can be used to produce striking creative
The force exerted on the projectile and the cannon, by the gunpowder explosion is the same. However, there is a major difference in the mass of the two objects and therefore, the acceleration experienced by the smaller object, the projectile due to this force has to be of a much greater intensity to balance the above equation. This makes it travel hundreds of metres as compared to the cannon, which moves a fraction of a metre due to the recoil (White). This recoil caused a problem for large calibre guns and when a gun was fired, the heavy projectile exerted a stronger backward force. As a result, the castings would end up exploding due to recoil near the breech.
Laser light has tight beam and is strong and concentrated. To make these three properties occur takes something called “Stimulated Emission”, in which photon emission is