I. Plastic, what have you done? First and foremost, plastics have made a great impact on our lives. Plastic was an innovative material that was invented by Leo Hendrik Baekeland in 1907, who was living in New York state. The word plastic comes from the Greek word πλαστικός (plastikos), which means "capable of being shaped or molded".
Plastic bags and paper bags are used for various purposes such as for shopping, packaging, disposal, carrying and transporting of products from one place to another etc. Millions of people all over the world uses plastic bag as compared to paper bag because they are densely used everywhere (Cave, 2011). The manufacturing process of plastic bags consumes less energy but they have an adverse effect on the environment than paper bags. These plastic bags are generated from the natural resources like petroleum as well as through natural gas because both resources are easily available in a plenty of amount and are cheaper than paper bags. However, paper bags are manufactured by the tree named as “Pulpwood” and they consumes 4 times more energy than plastic bags.
Microbial enzymes induce the rate of biodegradation of LDPE very efficiently without causing any damage to the environment. The extracellular enzymes are too large and they cannot penetrate deeply into the polymer material, and therefore act only on the polymer surface, as a result, the biodegradation of plastics is generally a surface erosion process. The UV irradiation, thermal and chemical oxidation of polythene prior to its exposure to the biotic environment (with plastic degrading microbes) enhances the process of
The importance of polymers in nature can be found by their role in biology as DNA which is a macromolecule with repeating subunits. The process of polymers formation takes place when monomers react with each other and this process is termed as polymerization. Polymers can be three dimensional or two dimensional structures. The word polymer has been derived from Greek words i.e., poly and mers. Poly
Typical uses of Plastic made Products and Major Industries in Which Plastic Fabrication Process is used? Polyethylene Terephthalate: 2-liter soda bottles, single-use water bottles, cooking oil bottles, peanut butter jars, etc. High Density Polyethylene: Detergent bottles, yoghurt tubs, milk jugs, bottle caps, backpack frames, hard hats, hula hoops, etc. Polyvinyl Chloride: Plastic pipes, Saran wraps, outdoor furniture, flooring, siding, etc. Polypropylene: Bottle caps, food containers, drinking straws, etc.
The first man-made plastic was invented in 1856 by Alexander Parkes. It is a great invention that changed the whole world and opened a new era of human’s history. ( https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plastic#History ) Nowadays people cannot live without using any plastic, from the coffee cups to the keyboard that I am using to write this paper, there is no way that people can get rid of plastic. More than a half century’s usage of plastic, it has already integrated in human’s society. It is a material that is designed to be strong, cheap, durable and easy to manufacture.
SELF-REPAIRING POLYMER TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACT Initiation of cracks and other types of damage on microscopic level is a critical problem in polymers during their service in structural applications and has been shown to change thermal, electrical, and acoustical properties, and eventually leading to whole scale failure of the material. Therefore, early sensing, diagnosis and repair of microcracks become necessary for removing the latent perils. In this context, the materials possessing self-healing function are ideal for long-term operation. Self-repairing polymers are based on the concept of human body's natural response to damage and its ability to recover with minimal external help. The advances in this field show that
1.0 Introduction Plastics have proven to be essential to society. The versatile nature of plastics makes it one of the most sought-after material. According to The New York Times (2011), close to 300 million tons of plastic is being produced annually. Furthermore, an article by The World Counts (2014) suggests that only 1 to 3% of the plastic produced is recycled globally. Even more worrying is the fact that plastic is a non-biodegradable material which means that it is extremely difficult to dispose of, thus resulting in a surplus of unwanted plastic that has no means of proper disposal.
As having the oil as main ingredient of its products and distribution, the company sees huge opportunities in the decrease of the price of oil to be below 50$ per Barrel, which will result a big decrease in the production costs, and the raise of competitiveness of the brand due to the additional money which is invested in the company. And to know better the significance of those future opportunities, we will study the primary factor of this business. Plastic is used on a daily basis for over half a century. Despite efforts to recycling, Greenpeace reports that about 100 million Tons of plastic produced each year, nearly 10% end up in the oceans. The word plastic comes from the Greek plastikos, which means malleable, an essential feature of these materials.
(Chandran N.D.,2010)Bioremediation is carried out by a living forms. Among others, microorganisms are also involved in biologically degrading complex matter into simpler fragments, which renders it harmless and also makes it available to other organisms for their consumption. Bioremediation is achieved by existing