Reinforced Concrete – A New Way To Build What Is Reinforced Concrete? A substance similar to stone that is obtained as a result of combining cement, sand and other aggregate along with water. Once they are combined, they are left to turn hard and this can take up any shape or structure depending on the structure of the building. One of the latest technologies in civil engineering design services is the use of reinforced concrete. Even though the concrete material is strong in terms of compression it is weak in tension.
The flexural strength of self compacting concrete is much higher than that of ordinary concrete. Imparting prestress in self compacting concrete members makes sections even lighter and reduces the overall dead weight of the member. This technology is ideal for rail and highway bridges. By providing parabolic and eccentric tendons moment can be easily counteracted. OBJECTIVES Increase the load carrying capacity of a simply supported beam using a Shape Memory Alloy wire as a prestressed tendon, instead of steel
Concrete materials are still a dominant material for construction due to its advantages suchas workability, low cost and fire resistance as well as its low maintenance cost. It is formed from a hardened mixture of cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate, water and some admixture. Massive exploration of the natural resources for producing concrete affect to the environment condition and global warning. We have responsibility to reduce the effect of the application of concrete materials to environmental impact. The concrete should be used as efficient as possible.
The wet concrete is then placed and spread over the reinforcement and the formwork. It is compacted, vibrated and leveled off. Steel reinforcing bars are cast into the underside of the floor with 20mm or more concrete cover below them to prevent the steel rusting and to give it protection in case of fire. The thicker the concrete cover to reinforcement, the greater the resistance of the floor to fire. A combination of high tensile steel and mild steel reinforcement is used.
2.1 Literature Review Self-compacted concrete is a material used where it is suitable for placing the concrete itself. It is also used in the congested areas without using vibrators or other mechanical equipment. Development of SCC material used for SCC and test methods 2.2 Self-Compacting Concrete SCC and its Background The invention of self-consolidated concrete is occurred in 1980s to overcome the difficulties of normal concrete which need careful handling and compacting process like vibration. SCC has made it easy because there is no need of mechanical process needed. It was about 1983 there was a major concern in japan arising out of durability of concrete structures and professionals looking for different aspects that one of the reasons
Elasto-Plastic Seismic response of RC continuos bridge with foundation-pier dynamic interaction (Bo, Chen, Yu) 2015,18, 6, Advances In Structural Engineering Using materials with high quality can help the bridge strengthen its durability. In this article, the shallow foundation is often employed as the base for bridges. And due to some natural phenomenon, the shallow foundation experiences plastics deformation. No matter how durable the strength of matrials used in building up brides, if the very own foundation is not strong, the bridge itself is not strong enough to withstand some phenomenons. This article shows that the study of soil-structure interaction (SSI) will help to maintain a proper foundation for bridges.
In other words, the reduction in strain of reinforcement due to tensile stresses in concrete between cracks is termed as “Tension Stiffening”. Before cracking, the concrete tensile stress increases with load. When the stress in the concrete first reaches the tensile strength at a particular section, cracking occurs, Figure 1(a). When cracking occurs, the stress in the concrete at the crack, drops to zero. The concrete stress increases with distance from the crack, due to the steel-concrete bond, until at some distance from the crack, the concrete stress is no longer affected by the crack, as shown in Figure 1(b).
As a result, cohesive crack existed where it will produce break on concrete. Glass fibre also acted as crack arrester. This can be explained when the first crack occur in the matrix where the strong fibre pick up the load. In other words, it meant the support was stronger than the matrix itself where more load will only produce new crack but glass fibre will immediately arrest the crack in order to avoid first crack from propagating (Wallace et
The shear strength of the fiber/matrix interface was determined by means of single fiber push-out tests. Three kinds of fibers were tested, namely as-received CF, desized CF (CF without polymer sizing) and CNT-CF. Fibers were put into a small cylinder mold; resin was introduced and cured. Thin slices transversal to the fibers were cut from the composite rod and thinned down to the desirable thickness (15-40 µm) by polishing. The push-out test was performed using an indenter with the diameter of 5 µm on selected fibers.
Concrete is the primary material in construction industry. It consists of cement, coarse aggregate, fine aggregate, water and other admixtures. Generally Ordinary Portland cement is used in concreting but the production of OPC causes a huge amount of carbon emission and also it uses a huge amount of non-renewable natural resources. The concrete construction practice in use is considered as unsustainable because it consumes a huge quantity of sand, stone and water and 2.5 billion tons of OPC per year. A major component of concrete is cement, which has its own environmental and social impacts and contributes largely to those of concrete.