What are two Greek city-states that you know? I know two popular city-states of Ancient Greece: Sparta and Athens. Sparta and Athens are known as city-state with many contrasting beliefs. Sparta was a strict military society while Athens was a free democracy. Sparta prohibited any new ideas while Athens accepted it.
During the Archaic age of Greece, Athens and Sparta were the two most powerful city states. This period was the golden age of Greece, as it experienced expansive amounts of wealth and power. Athens and Sparta were deemed opposites, Athens being the “good guys” and Sparta being the “bad guys”. However, this idea is incorrect. Athens established the Delian League with their “allies” in order to “fight against the Persians” but this alliance was just a pawn in the Athenian chess game.
Ruled by Ptolemy I Soter in 323 BC, he turned Egypt as part of the Hellenistic kingdoms. The rapid growth and influence of the Ptolemaic Kingdom mainly came from eagerness of Ptolemy I to further strengthen his own position as ruler. Housing the capital of Alexandria within the kingdom, Egypt became the most important learning center as libraries were constructed and Greek influence was nurtured into the part of the Egyptian culture. Egyptians with status and class, like Ptolemy I who had been recorded to have donated talents for the arts, were seen by the native Greeks as very skillful and educated. However, the political hierarchy within Egypt remained true to the traditional authoritative power of the Pharaohs.
Despite their similarities, the biggest difference between Rome and Carthage was that Rome was in the process of trying to include all their citizens in matters of the state. While the Roman Republic began as an aristocracy, the Plebeians were slowly gaining the right to representation in their government. In addition, Rome made efforts to give outlying territories some of the same rights that were given to their naturalized citizens. This gave Rome the advantage of loyal citizens that Carthage did not have (Morey, 1901). Carthage, on the other hand, relied upon an army of mercenaries and the strength of a single leader, instead of the governmental organization that Rome used (Morey, 1901).
However, they became having some rights in their family, civic and political lives. Women were devoted themselves to their husbands. Kay O’Pry who is the writer of "Social and Political Roles of Women in Athens and Sparta" explains the stages of women 's lives at its time. Before they get married, they were controlled by their fathers then the responsibility fell to their husbands. Also, they were married in their early teens to an older husband.
Moreover, they differ from the concepts of a well trained or educated society and a well built military, but share similarities in their government format. The cultural values of Athens relate to architecture and their religion, while Sparta exemplified warrior values in their cultural values, but both societies shared cultural background rooted in myths and legends. The Athenian Parthenon was built by architects Iktinos and Kallikrates under the supervision of Pericles. It was a large and expensive project dedicated to the Greek god “Athena.” The Parthenon was also built on a hill or the Acropolis of Athens, highest point of Athens (Doc #2).The money used to build this Parthenon was originally meant to make Athens’ navy stronger and bigger, but Pericles used this fortune to build the Parthenon showing the power and wealth of Athens. The purpose of the Parthenon being built on the Acropolis of Athens was to let voyagers or travelers see this
Some were more severe like the way males grew up. Athens and Sparta were different in many ways. Athenians descended from lonian bloodlines while Spartans came from Dorian Invaders. Which is probably the reason why they are so military based. Athens was much larger in size to Sparta.
They were always in a war against each other. The two influential city-states were the Athens and Sparta. The Spartans had the strongest army. They started recruiting boys at the age of 7 to train and join the army; they weren’t released until they were 21 years of age. Although there army was strong the women had lots of freedom.
The men received the social rights to full educations, to property, and to vote, and the women were seen as, essentially, second-class citizens, relying on their husbands or fathers for near everything. Women at this time had a minimum level of education. Women were only allowed to get their education at home or at an elementary school; the luckier, upper-class women were sometimes gifted with private tutors. They weren’t allowed to enter professions such ass law, politics, medicine, politics and other high professions. They were mostly allowed to be cooks and maids.
Sparta seemed intent on consolidating power amongst its aristocratic families, while Athens moved in a different direction, attempting to keep power from gathering around any specific group, How were the two city-states similar in their governmental structures, and how did they differ? Both societies had a public assembly in which every citizen could make themselves heard. Both had relatively short terms of public office, (excluding the Gerousia) and both believed in reaching a consensus before enacting policy. Athens had a much larger group of citizens who had a much greater influence on matters of policy, and Sparta was a much more streamlined machine, geared toward making war, and maintaining military readiness. Conclusion Neither society was as inclusive as most modern societies, but both had things they held ideologically important, and did very well.