Psychological Theories in The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde

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3. Psychological theories referred to main characters
3.1. Sigmund Freud: Psychodynamics
Sigmund Freud, who lived from 1856 to 1939, was an Austrian neurologist and the primal father of psychology. He created an entirely new approach to understanding the human personality by separating the human conscious into three parts. Robert Louis Stevenson makes use of Freud’s theories. In “The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde”, the dualistic issue dominating the novel, coincide with the Freudian concepts of instincts and today is known as a strong example of Freudian personality theory in fiction. Freud believed that the psyche is built of three structures which battle for dominance; the id, the ego and the superego. By using his theory we are
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Jekyll and Mr. Hyde”, manifest characteristics of the Freudian structural theory. Mr. Hyde is an obvious representative for the Id because of his aggressive instincts, desire, and uncontrolled energy. He seeks instant gravitation without following any moral compass or social norms. All these characteristics are an expression of the pleasure principles that aspire fulfillment of basic bodily needs such as hunger, thirst, anger and sex. Mr. Hyde’s self- destructive and aggressive behavior proves that he not only follows the pleasure principal but also the death drive, which is commonly called “Thanatos”. It states that all human have an unconscious desire for death. Sigmund Freud opines, “ the goal of life is death”. Furthermore, Stevenson labels Mr. Hyde as a troglodyte by describing him as “poorly evolved”. His savage and uncivilized behavior makes him seem like a regression to a more violent phase of human…show more content…
Jekyll clearly demonstrates the Persona, or the archetype of society’s expectations. He is well established in the community and known for his decency and charitable work. After Mr. Hyde’s murder act, Dr. Jekyll embraces an extremely moral and religious lifestyle. “He came out of his seclusion, renewed relations with his friends, became once more their familiar guest and entertainer; and whilst he had always been known for charities, he was now no less distinguished for religion” . The explanation for Dr. Jekyll’s new belief system is his progress of individuation even when he has not fully accomplished the state of wholeness jet. It was Hyde’s behavior, “desire for a more primitive expression” which influenced Jekyll in that way. The other way around, Jekyll influenced Hyde’s action. In the last Chapter, the reader gets confused because of Hyde, committing suicide despite of his selfish and fearless nature. In this moment Jekyll’s urge to put an end to the experiment which became uncontrollable made Hyde kill himself. The unaware influences and, uncontrollable transformations are signs of an individuation. “The process of individuation […] is a totally spontaneous and natural process within the psyche, on a par with the physical processes of growth and ageing; it does not therefore exist as something that can be externally stimulated, but as something has is potentially present in all human beings, although most of us are unaware of it” . Mr. Hyde, the integral part of

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