Summary: Understanding Unemployment

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A. Understanding Unemployment

Unemployment is a resident who does not work but is looking for work or preparing for a new venture or residents who are not looking for jobs because it feels may not get jobs or residents who are not looking for work because it's already received work/have a job but have not yet started working.

According to Sakernas (National Survey of State labor force), unemployment is defined as follows:
1. those who are looking for work and now it doesn't work;
2. they are preparing an attempt i.e. a person's activities performed in order to prepare a new usaha/pekerjaan;
3. those who do not find work, because it feels may not get the job, called the unemployed desperate; and
4. those who already have jobs, but not yet
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-Just started working or less experience in working.
-keterpaksa that makes people work not in accordance with his talent and his skills.

2. open Unemployment (Open unemployment)
Open unemployment is really labour really did not have a job. The causes include:
-Unavailability of employment.
-Employment that does not fit with the background of his education.
-Not trying hard in their job search because it is lazy.

3. Underemployed (Under unemployment)
Half of the unemployed can be grouped into half visible unemployment (visible underemployment), i.e. those who work less than the normal hours (less than 35 jam/minggu). Farmers in Indonesia many have include as half of dislike of unemployment because farmers who only have a narrow land usually work less than 35 jam/minggu and half the unemployment discreet (invisible underemployment) or disguised unemployment (unemployment disguised), namely those of low productivity and low incomes.

According to the cause of the occurrence, unemployment can be classified into the following.
1. structural Unemployment
Structural unemployment is unemployment that occur due to changes in the structure of the economy. In general the country strives to develop its economy from an agricultural to an industrial
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Unemployment konjungtur
Unemployment konjungtur unemployment is caused by the presence of cycle konjungtur (change the activity of the economy). For example: in the period 1960-1980 an heavy point national development Indonesia stressed on agriculture, agricultural engineers so easy to get a job. In the aftermath of that match Government policy development point shifted to the field of processing industry and manufacturing so many engineers a difficult agricultural work/idle.

6. Unemployment caused by geographic isolation
Unemployment is experienced by the communities remote from the center of economic activity. Unemployment like this would normally cause urbanization.

C. Causes Of Unemployment

There are several reasons which give rise to unemployment that is as follows.
1. rapid population growth creates a lot of unemployment because of the increasing number of the labor force that is not offset by the expansion of employment opportunities.
2. Failure of the industrial sector. Existing investment patterns tend to be capital intensive and more small causes the onset of absorption of labor.
3. The work force cannot fulfil the qualifying requirements demanded by the world of work.
4. The instability of the economy, politics,
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