To March for Others is a monograph written by Laura Araiza. In the monograph, Araiza explores and expounds on the various organizations that were a major impact in the activist movement for the farm workers in California. The time period that this work was written around was around the mid 1960s to the early 1970s, during fight for civil rights. There were many different organizations that played major roles in the fight for the the farm worker rights, that Araiza discussed. Some of these were the SNCC (Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee) and also the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People). Both of these really aided in cooperation with the UFW (United Farm Workers). On the other hand, the two organizations that were mostly effective in cooperation with the UFW were The BPP (Black Panther Party) along with SCLC (Southern Christian Leadership Conference).
In the late 1800’s, J.P Morgan, John Rockefeller, and Andrew Carnegie had a negative impact on society because they were Robber Barons. They treated their workers very poorly in a way that should not have happened. J.P Morgan forced his workers to labor under harsh conditions for long hours and low pay. This is coming from a guy who has made millions of dollars and who has started a 60 million dollar business. Knowing how much money he has and how very little he pays his workers shows how ruthless he is as a business owner. Likewise, John Rockefeller forced his workers to work long hours for low pay. He also discouraged union activity in his corporation. It seems oddly unfair the he donated millions of dollars to many different causes but
The saying that history repeats itself has been proven to be true time and time again. History seems to be doomed to repeat itself as if lessons were never learned from past mistakes. The Gilded Age is a unique period in American history that is undoubtedly repeating itself in the modern day. Corruption, unprecedented immigration, and the massing of wealth by the top 1% of the population are just a few of the things that characterize this period of American history. The same issues that plagued America over 100 years ago are re-emerging in todays’ society leading scholars to say that America has arrived in “The Second Gilded Age”. The similarities between modern day America and the Gilded Age are astounding. To understand why this is occurring
In these two different historian viewpoints on the Pullman Striek, it seems as though Historian A is the most convincing. Historian A's viewpoint is backed by more statistics, while Historian B seems to take it from the viewpoints of the very few people who enjoyed living in Pullman, Illinois. The first historian mentions the various different ways that Pullman was making money from the city, including the difference in how much he bought things like water vs. how much he sold it to the residents for. For example, while Pullman's company paid $0.33 on natural gas, he sold it to the residents at $2.25. This was higher than most cities charged people for their natural gas (Chicago charged $1.00-$1.25). Most of what Historian B talks about is
The time period of 1865 to 1900 was an era called the Gilded Age. The citizens of America saw a change in the way the country operated. The country started to become more industrialized based, while the agriculture industry decreased. Due to these changes in the economy, industrial workers and farmers struggled. In the face of power of big business and the face of the federal government, the laboring-class Americans attempted to better their lives. The laboring-class did that by improving work conditions, decreasing poverty, and trying to get increased government interactions.
Progressivism is unquestionably hard to define. Nonetheless, many historians have endeavored to define and sought out how it embarked. Every person will have different perspectives, thus each of the historians will have different outlooks of how they view the findings and what they assume progressivism is. Therefore, this essay will work to exemplify what I think triggered the progressive movement in the United States.
Samuel Gompers, progenitor of the American Federation of Labor, argued that the right to strike was absolutely obligatory if any reforms were going to be made and not even this right had been officially granted to the people by regime (Document I). Gompers made it very pellucid that not even the very substratum of organized labor had been established and so up until this point the advances that had been made, were virtually frivolous.
As industry exponentially grew after the Civil War, the need for labor and materials to power newly-created manufacturing giants caused new social classes to form: the rich corporation owners and the poor laborers. Unfathomably rich Robber Barons, or plutocratic American Capitalists, dominated the economy and industry and profited from the slave-like work of millions of poor laborers during this time period. Moreover, the poor working class and the rich further divided by distribution of wealth. Therefore, exploitation of capitalism widened the gap between the rich and poor classes of America, and both newly-formed classes developed reasons for the change.
At the end of the 19th Century, as the United States was experiencing rapid industrialization, a reconfiguration of the social order yielded opposing visions of social progress. Andrew Carnegie, wealthy businessman, and Jane Addams, founder of Chicago’s Hull House, put forward different methods to achieve such progress, where Addams focuses on creating social capital in a seemingly horizontal manner while Carnegie advocates for a top-down approach. While both of them seem to reap a sense of purpose from their attempts to improve the nation, their approaches vary depending on their vision of the composition of the population they want to uplift.
Progressivism was a product of the 20th century, made up mainly of middle class white women and professional men. The roots of the Progressive Movement can be traced back to the labor unions and the Populist party that formed in the late 19th century as a response to the perceived evils of industrialism. The makeup its members, as opposed to the poor immigrants and farmers that constituted both the northern labor unions, gave the Progressive Movement the muscle that it needed to create large social change. Driven by their belief that science was the key to fixing society, Progressives set out to free America from its industrial prison. In his book Triangle, David von Drehle writes, “Impelled by the belief that truth drives out error, they dedicated
As industrial strength grew and technology advanced, labor in America changed. Machines replaced many of workers’ old duties and some skilled laborers who had been previously valued became easily replaced. Immigrants who were willing to work under poorer conditions flooded into the United States, big businesses grew, and political machines whose interests were not that of the people occupied the government. Laborers worked ten hour shifts, six-day workweeks, and started work as children. In The Jungle, by Upton Sinclair, he describes the painful and vigorous work in the meat-packing industry, saying, “The hands of these men would be criss-crossed with cuts, until you could no longer pretend to count them...They would have no nails, they had worn them off pulling hides; their knuckles were swollen so that their fingers spread out like a fan. There were men who worked in the cooking-rooms...in these rooms the germs of tuberculosis might live for two years.” These suffering Americans appealed to the government and labor unions for help, but they did not receive it due to lack of union organization, big business ties, and laissez-faire economic ideals. During the Gilded Age, the U.S. government suppressed the average industrial worker, and labor unions, though created for laborers’ aid, accomplished little and were futile when facing big business and government.
On May 11, 1894 a widespread strike lead by railroad workers brought business to a complete cessation; only willing to discontinue until the federal government took unprecedented action to end the strike. The Pullman Strike began “as a peaceful labor protest against a single Chicago employer (54)”, and later ended up “into a national labor boycott of more than twenty railroads and then into a violent confrontation between the federal government, the railroad companies, and American workers (55.)” With the “mix of employer resistance, government aggression, worker bitterness, and general economic desperation (54)”, the Pullman Strike presented questions towards the “rights of employers and workers in an industrialized democracy and about the role
*The Pullman Strike was widespread by the United States railroad workers, approximately a quarter-million worker were on strike at the peak and it impacted the expedition the railroad system across the states. The strike between the American Railway Union and George Pullman changed the course of future strikes when President Grover Cleveland ordered federal troops to break up the strikers; its influenced how the federal government and the court system would handle labor issues. The labor issues during the Pullman Strike were not limited that of rights of the workers, the role of management in the workers private life, and the roles of government resolving labor conflicts. Pullman planned communities for his workers how he determined
In Michael K. Honey 's book Southern Labor and Black Civil Rights: Organizing Memphis Workers, Honey analyzes the various labor movements that occurred throughout Memphis, Tennessee in the 1930 's, 40 's, and 50 's. Throughout his book, we are introduced to key players such as "Boss" Ed Crump, the bias police, the AFL, George Bass, Thomas Watkins, and other organizers, and possibly the most important to the labor movement, the CIO (Congress of Industrial Organizers). Memphis acts as the backdrop of the war between labor rights and traditional, Southern labor standards. Memphis, like the majority of the South, was ruled by an elitist few, that fed off of the Jim Crow lifestyle. Memphis was led by "Boss" Ed Crump. Crump maintained control by
Upton Sinclair’s book, The Jungle, depicts the struggles of Lithuanian immigrants as they worked and lived in Chicago’s Packingtown at the beginning of the Twentieth Century. The United States experienced an enormous social and political transformation; furthermore, the economy, factories, and transportation industry grew faster than anyone had ever seen. Immigrants and migrants were attracted to city life for its promise of employment and their chance at the American Dream. The poor working class had little to no rights, and they grappled with unfair business practices, unsafe working conditions, racism, Social Darwinism, class segregation, xenophobia, political corruption, strikes, starvation, poor housing,