The hypothesis stated that if sucrose was added to the yeast, then the greatest amount of CO2 would be produced because sucrose contains glucose as one of its individual sugar units, which is the primary food source for eukaryotic cells undergoing aerobic cellular respiration. This hypothesis was supported by data from the group and class averages. According to the group data, sucrose had the greatest respiration rate at 35.94 ppm/s, then agave at 20.22 ppm/s, honey at 13.69 ppm/s, and the lowest respiration rate water, at 3.63 ppm/s. The class data was as follows: sucrose with 13.66 ppm/s, Honey with 11.24 ppm/s, agave with 11.09 ppm/s, and finally water with the lowest respiration rate again at 3.03 ppm/s. The group’s data for sucrose was
The purpose of this lab was to explore and understand the scientific method and how to apply it to experimental procedures, as well as developing an understanding the importance of complete and concise presentation of experimental results obtained by statistical data analysis from collected raw findings. These learning objectives were accomplished by testing the emergence times of sponge creatures from their gelatin capsules by asking the question, “How does water temperature effect the time in which the sponge creatures materialize from their casing?”. An experiment was designed to test this using two different water temperatures and twenty four sponge gelatin capsules (1). Often referred to as “Magic Grow Capsules” or “Magic Animal Growing Capsules” these capsules are comprised of a sponge animal that has been placed in a small casing composed of gelatin. When placed in water the gelatin begins to break down.
1% glucose, 1% maltose and 1% lactose all progressively get positive results by changing colours to reddish brown at the end of this experiment. In this case the aldehyde functional group that is present in the products (monosaccharides and some disaccharides) in this reaction is able to reduce copper in the presence of alkali and this produces colour changes while converting to an aldose sugar. Honey is made of fructose and glucose which instantly turned brown after the test-tube was placed in the boiling water because of its active aldehyde and carbonyl group. The copper (II) sulphate present in the Benedict’s solution reacts with electrons from the aldehyde group which results in a redox reaction to from cuprous oxide, a red brown precipitate that seen in all of the above mentioned solutions (Hill, 1982). Beer also gave positive results because it contains aldehydes and ketones (i.e. acetone, trans-2-butenal, furfual) during its beer production process where the sugars are converted through fermentation (Hill, 1982).
5 water bath were set up each to10 °C. (5 were used do the experiment faster) 5 cm3 of starch solution were added into the 5 test tubes that were labeled test tubes. Then 5 cm3 of amylase enzyme was added into the other 5 test tubes that were labeled. Put one of the starch solution test tube (preferably the one labeled 1) and one of the test tube containing amylase into the water bath (10 °C).
The 3 concentrations of enzymes were 0.5 ml, 1.0 ml, and 2.0 ml of turnip extract, while the substrate consisted of 0.1ml, 0.2 ml, and 0.4 ml of hydrogen peroxide. In a separate tube, the control was made up of turnip extract and guaiacol, known as the color reagent. This was recorded the absorbance every 20 seconds for 3 minutes.
Yeast fermentation and starch synthesis are some of the processes that demonstrate how energy is made or store depending on the environment the cell is exposed to in the form of ATP to be able to support their cellular processes. In fermentation, an anabolic process is involved. An anabolic process is a type of metabolic process in which large molecules are broken down into smaller ones and require an input of energy for it to occur known as an endergonic process. In the fermentation of the starch lab, the substrate glucose was broken down into two pyruvate-requiring two ATP molecules to be used- and was then reduced to lactic acid.
Thus, yeast cells have evolved to favour a slightly acid medium and fermentation progresses best in the pH range 4.5 to 5.5. Increasing or decreasing the pH too much causes the enzymes to stop comepletly and denature. Therefore, slightly acidic conditions are more favourable to fermantion due to yeasts preferring acidic conditions. Another factor that affects fermantion is the structure and type of the sugar present. Glucose would be the most efficient sugar due to the fact it doesn’t require any additional energy to convert it and can be directly used in the glycolysis cycle.
While it was difficult to tell at the time of the mixing, the yeast were not fully mated. Because of this, the alR alpha2r and a2r alpha1R genotypes appeared slighly pink instead of completely white due to the fact that some of the red phenotyped yeast did not mate and grew mitotically (Fig. 3b.) VI. References Herskowitz, I. (1988). Life cycle of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Microbiological Reviews, 52(4), 536–553.
Catalase Test, in this test the microbial culture from Nutrient Agar plates were used. This test determines the production of catalase by the microorganisms. Catalase is an enzyme which decomposes hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen gas thereby, protecting the microorganisms from the lethal effect of hydrogen peroxide which is accumulated as an end product of aerobic carbohydrate metabolism. (Bahrami-Hessari et. al.
neoformans. C. neoformans produce a brown-black pigment on the medium; all other yeasts produce no pigment or light yellow. Esculin is a beta-glucose-6, 7-dihydroxycoumarin. C. neoformans produce pigment because the 6,7-dihydroxycoumarin component of the esculin molecule is converted to a melanin-like pigment. Edberg SC et al thought that the reaction was similar to the conversion of diphenols, aminophenols, and diaminobenzenes to melanin.
The Effect of Sugar Concentration on CO2 Production by Cellular Respiration in Yeast Introduction In this lab, our main focus was to find how sugar concentration affect yeast respiration rates. This was to simulate the process of cellular respiration. Cellular respiration is the process that cells use to transfer energy from the organic molecules in food to ATP (Adenosine Tri-Phosphate). Glucose, CO2, and yeast (used as a catalyst in this experiment) are a few of the many vital components that contribute to cellular respiration.
What is the effect of temperatures 10°C , 20°C, 40°C, 60°C and 70°C ± 1/°C on yeast fermentation when baking bread? ii. Aim: The focal aim of this experiment is to investigate the effect that temperature has on the growth and respiration of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) fermentation. iii.
Title: THE BALLOON INFLATION REACTION Introduction: Chemistry is one thing that makes us understand and gives us reasons of why certain reactions gives certain results. In this experiment we will be illustrating the reaction between baking powder and vinegar and see what happens to the balloon that is attached to it. Hypothetically the reaction of the vinegar and baking powder will produce carbon dioxide which will inflate the balloon. If the more vinegar may happen that when more vinegar is added to the baking powder it may produce more carbon dioxide thus the balloons diameter increases.
Joshua Miller 12/18/17 Fermentation Lab report Introduction The term fermentation refers to the chemical breakdown of a substance by bacteria, yeasts, or other microorganisms, typically involving effervescence and the giving off of heat (wikipedia). Sugars are converted to ethyl alcohol when fermentation happens. In this experiment we determined if yeast cells undergo fermentation when placed in a closed flask with no oxygen. Glucose and yeast are mixed together in a closed flask and allowed to incubate for about one hour.