The Effect of Temperature on the Amount of Oxygen Consumed During Cellular Respiration of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Purpose: To determine the temperature at which baker’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) respires most efficiently in order to produce the best baked goods as possible when utilizing yeast. Research Question: How does temperature affect amount of oxygen used during cellular respiration of yeasts? Introduction: Respiration is process of releasing energy from organic compounds in order to produce energy. Saccharomyces cerevisiae can use both anaerobic respiration which is a type of respiration that occurs without using oxygen, or aerobic respiration which occurs by the use of oxygen. During anaerobic respiration, glucose is transformed in the products of ethanol and carbon dioxide.
Despite its name, bromothymol blue solution may sometimes appear yellow or reddish depending on the pH of the stock water used to prepare this pH indicator solution.Low levels of carbon dioxide or acid in solution with bromothymol blue indicator will appear blue. As the level of carbon dioxide or acid increases, the solution will gradually take on a yellow tint. This makes bromothymol blue ideal for biology experiments to indicate photosynthetic activity (solution turns blue as plants use up carbon dioxide) or respiratory activity (solution turns yellow as carbon dioxide content increases).Carbon dioxide is a byproduct of cellular respiration. Therefore, we can measure the amount of carbon dioxide as an indicator of cellular respiration. When carbon dioxide combines with water it forms carbonic acid.
The goal of the experiment is to synthesize a bromohexane compound from 1-hexene and HBr(aq) under reflux conditions and use the silver nitrate and sodium iodide tests to determine if the product is a primary or secondary hydrocarbon. The heterogeneous reaction mixture contains 1-hexene, 48% HBr(aq), and tetrabutylammonium bromide and was heated to under reflux conditions. Heating under reflux means that the reaction mixture is heated at its boiling point so that the reaction can proceed at a faster rate. The attached reflux condenser allows volatile substances to return to the reaction flask so that no material is lost. Since alkenes are immiscible with concentrated HBr, tetrabutylammonium bromide is used as a phase-transfer catalyst.
Sugar/ glucose is an important carbohydrate that can be made during photosynthesis from water and carbon dioxide, using energy from sunlight. Carbon dioxide is given off as a waste product when energy is released by the breaking down of glucose. This can be used by plant cells in the process of photosynthesis to form new carbohydrates. Yeast is a single-celled fungus that can break down sugars (glucose) to help produce carbon dioxide. Research Question How does sugar concentration affect yeast respiration rates?
The results of the phenol-sulfuric acid analysis conducted in this experiment suggest that the data acquired was relatively precise but inaccurate with respect to the given carbohydrate concentrations of the soda and Gatorade samples. Using a standard curve generated from a glucose solution with a known concentration, the carbohydrate concentration of the samples was determined (in terms of glucose) and a low coefficient of variation was calculated. However, a high percent relative error was apparent in the analysis of both samples. This may have been due to the fact that the analysis was conducted assuming glucose was the carbohydrate of interest, while, in fact, a significant portion of the monosaccharides would have existed as fructose (a
Abstract: The Yeast alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme (EC 188.8.131.52) belongs to zinc-containing alcohol dehydrogenases family. The aim of this experiment was to determine the subcellular localisation of YAD in S. cerevisiae. The yeast cell was ruptured by homogenisation and fractionated by a process called centrifugation. Protein assay was carried out to calculate the concentration of protein prior to dilutions. ADH assay was carried out to oxidise the ethanol to acetaldehyde and two marker enzymes G6PDH and ALP assays were carried out to aid in the determination of the localisation on YAD.
However in this essay we will focus more on the application of biofuels through the conversion of sugar to alcohol, otherwise known as fermentation. The understanding of fermentation first came into light in 1789 by a french chemist known as Antoine Lavosier, who studied the transformation of substances. Through quantitive chemistry, he studied the mechanism of fermentation by estimating the general proportions of sugar and water molecules in sugarcanes with the with the end products such as carbon dioxide and ethanol; he also added yeast. In his conclusion, two thirds of the sugar was reduced into ethanol and the other one third was
Title: THE BALLOON INFLATION REACTION Introduction: Chemistry is one thing that makes us understand and gives us reasons of why certain reactions gives certain results. In this experiment we will be illustrating the reaction between baking powder and vinegar and see what happens to the balloon that is attached to it. Hypothetically the reaction of the vinegar and baking powder will produce carbon dioxide which will inflate the balloon. If the more vinegar may happen that when more vinegar is added to the baking powder it may produce more carbon dioxide thus the balloons diameter increases. This reaction is an acid base reaction thus results expected to show some carbon dioxide.
This change was the result of osmosis, the movement of water from high to low concentrations, losing mass when the concentration outside the shell was low and vice versa. In addition to showing osmosis, the egg also shows how osmosis plays a part in creating hypotonic and hypertonic states in cells, as the egg’s membrane is similar to that of a cell membrane. Osmosis is not only important in cells, but also explains why salt water shouldn’t be consumed and why our skin gets wrinkly, as water moves from high to low concentrations. In order to improve the accuracy of this experiment, a higher sample size, larger amounts of solutions and better controlled environments should be
The zinc acts as the anode and the copper acts as the cathode. Copper has a higher electronegativity than zinc, so the bonding electrons in zinc leave and flow into the copper. However, this reaction would not be possible without the lemon in the experiment, which acts as an electrolyte because it contains citric acid in the form of lemon juice. When the zinc comes in contact with the lemon juice, oxidation occurs within the zinc. Oxidation is a process where an element loses electrons in a chemical reaction.
Genius When using gas in the egg drop challenge, it spreads the amount of energy transferred from the ground to the egg. Making the energy from the ground to the egg less, because if you look closely at a balloon filled with air. When it hits the ground, the gas in the balloon spreads out inside the balloon, and then contracts back. The solid object (the egg) on top of the balloon will sink into the balloon, because it’s a solid and heavier than the gas in the balloon. Let’s say you have an egg that weighs about one pound, you have to build a sculpture that slows down something moving at 9.8 meters per second.
Citrate test is used to identify if an organism is capable of utilizing citrate as a sole carbon source. Citrate medium contains sodium citrate as the only carbon source. if the bacteria can utilize the citrate it will also convert to the ammonium phosphate to ammonia hydroxide. The test will conclude and the agar will turn blue it means citrate was
Have you ever wondered if a balloon can self inflate? How big will the balloon get when different acids are used? If the vinegar reacts to the baking soda more, will the balloon blow up more? The hypothesis is that the balloon with the vinegar and baking soda will inflate more. It needs to be explored because different acids react differently with the baking soda.