The social, political factors that played major role in the rise of nationalism in India and Nigeria are similar. These factors include the role of the educated elite, the racial practices of the British, the emergence of nationalist political parties and groups, and the return of the soldiers who fought in the World Wars. Colonial policies by the British in India and Nigeria equally contributed in stimulating national consciousness. The British mistreated the colonized people depriving them of their rights and dealing with them as second –rate citizens. The colonial racial activities contributed in spurring nationalist feelings among the elite and the masses alike.
As a product of the Revolutions of 1848, European sentiment towards Nationalism grew extensively among the middle and lower classes. European ethnic groups and nations desired a self-determined state that represented their group and culture. As a result, both Germany and Italy would experience unification movements within several decades. By 1871, the Italian states would be unified under the Italian tricolour flag; and in the same year, the German states would become integrated into Germany under Wilhelm I of Prussia. Nationalism is both a political and social system in which the nation-state is of utmost importance -- in which nation-states act in their own self-interest and are of full sovereignty.
The 19th century was a time of new beginning after the French revolution and Napoleonic wars. The bloom of industrial revolution influenced many areas of life including culture in arts, politics and music which led to a political movement termed as Nationalism. The term Nationalism is defined as a national identity that possesses common traits such as language, culture and historical tradition by a group of individuals to create unity within a country. This political movement led the people believe that they are citizens of a country and not workers. This movement brought unity to people influencing them that they have freedom to equal rights and status in society, to express their emotions and from religion.
What is imperialism? Imperialism is an approach to expand a nation’s power and their influences over other lands. Empires would look for expansion in their rule over other countries like Africa, Asia, and the Middle East starting in the 1870s and continued until 1914. But, was Imperialism beneficial for developing nations? Imperialism benefited developing nations from the positive aspects of technological advancements, economic gain, and political power.
With the improvement transportation, Europeans traded manufactured goods with the Africans and they exchange for slaves and this slaves were used in America on plantations and C.W (2013) states that there occured mercantilism British government wanted to establish powerful economy and protect traders so they planned to mazimize utility so mercantilisit thought is related nationalism and then European countries were enrichment and this led to the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the industrial revolution expanded the capitalism in the United States. With the industrial revolution and capitalism , countries entered the new process, nationalism. Elder (2012) states that industrialization increased nationalism in some countries such as Germany and Italy. These countries have to increase the value or productivity and quality of good because they wanted to become one and greater to defend their countries so nationalism was more important in industrializing
Federal law is above the law of the Federation, that determined by the constitution. The executive branch implements laws and there is an independence of the federal legislative institutions. Secondly, this is advantages of federalism, which include protection against external enemies, resolution of conflicts. Federalism simplifies management on the background of the language, religious and cultural differences and flexibility of power - the ability to find new, creative solutions to national issues. Finally, I would like to add disadvantages of federalism: Competitions between subjects for resources and instability because Federation can collapse or will be needed to require armed intervention to save the Union.
The other function of federalism is to integrate structures such as economic, social or foreign policy. The concept of federalism represents the aim to build unity and to preserve the diversity. The main principle is to separate the powers between the different levels of government by creating common institutions. According to this theory the nationalist sentiments lead to political and military conflicts. One of the great thinkers on this theory was Altiero Spinelli.
They see nationalism as an instrument through which the ruling class controls the people and counters the threat of social revolution by emphasizing national loyalty is stronger than class solidarity. Sudipta Kaviraj can be discussed while we try to contextualise the concept of nation with respect to India. He says that a distinction can be made
Nationalism is the idea that a people who have much in common, such as language, culture and within the same location ought to organize in such a way that it creates a stable and enduring state. Nationalism is tied to patriotism, and it is the driving force behind the identity of a culture. Nationalism had many effects in Europe from 1815, The Congress of Vienna and beyond. Nationalism brings people together in a way and people can feel belong to something. Factors include Prince Metternich, the middle class in countries get involved, and ideas of imperialism and many others brought people together as one to be called nationalism.
Google defines nationalism as an extreme form of patriotism marked by feeling of superiority over other countries or advocacy of political independence for a particular country. From what I’ve learned, I believe nationalism to be the coming together of nations that believe they share common beliefs, to work towards a common goal. But who said nationalism should be established amongst races, religion, culture if we all descend from ‘a common ancestor’ and have just adapted to different things around us differently. Different countries/states had different types of nationalism but if we focus on South African nationalism this would be coming together to fight for equal rights between races. Apartheid in South Africa can be defined as a policy or system of