Another key feature of Attachment Theory are internal working models. These working models are created patterns of attachment, usually formed during childhood development, that affect relational attachments in adulthood. These models represent feelings about oneself and others, which contribute to their behavior in their relationships with others. A person’s internal models are usually subconscious, but can change with a cumulative experience, either positive or
Cultural Differences in Child Attachment and The Universality of Attachment Theory Although attachment theory has been widely accepted, its universality is controversial. Some research support its validity across cultures, some do not. The main critique about the universality of attachment theory is that it is based especially on research that is conducted in Euro-Western populations. This causes suspicions about whether attachment theory is valid across diverse cultures. In this paper, I will present a literature review of four cross-cultural research to examine the universality of attachment theory.
Introduction – the central importance of early attachment relationships in development Development is shaped to a very significant degree by the relationships we have with our primary attachment figures. These earliest relationships are crucial as they represent our first emotional and social interactions, are the first means by which we learn about ourselves and the world, and lay the foundations for adjusted development, emotional wellbeing and later successful interpersonal relationships (ref). Bowlby, the founding father of attachment theory, describes how in ideal circumstances our attachment relationship with our primary caregiver– in the majority of cases our mother- is organized in such a way that we come to view our caregiver and later, other people, as reliable, loving and dependable; the world as a safe place to be explored with confidence, and ourselves as worthy and deserving of love (ref). We will return later to this theory and specifically to the development of internal working models which shape our perceptions of ourselves and others, but for now it is sufficient to acknowledge that the establishment of a secure attachment relationship with a primary caregiver sets up the developing child for optimal psychological wellbeing and adjustment (ref). Attachment style was later described in more detail by Ainsworth and colleagues (ref) and was experimentally operationalised as the Strange Situation Experiment (ref) which remains the gold standard for assessing attachment style to this day (ref).
In observing the timeline, the events depicted shows the development of Attachment Theory from its early influence until the collaboration by John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth (nee Salter). This theory was formulated by John Bowlby and then with further input it was elaborated by Mary Ainsworth. It seems as if this theory has originated from a base on ethological theories, the study of animal and human as they evolved; psychoanalytic perspective where the mother-child relationship was analyzed and; cognitive where the self and others are examined. Mary Main an American who is a psychologist and a professor, has taken attachment theory into a new direction by applying it to adults. She was a student of Mary Ainsworth, and whilst working with her
CHAPTER III THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK This study focused on the Attachment theory in which it is stated how attachment is a deep and enduring emotional bond that connects one person to another across time and space (Ainsworth, 1973; Bowlby, 1969). Attachment theory is a theory that’s connected to psychology, studied first by John Bowlby. It explains the relevance of getting attached to something in an individual’s development. It is observed among children relying on their parents for stability, and that there is an existing need for them due to such reliance. The attachment theory is most commonly observed in the parent- child scenario, as it is in Bowlby’s study which regarded the existence of the attachment as a child needing some sort of person to give them a security and assurance.
According to Ainsworth, “attachment refers to an affectional tie that one person forms to another specific individual… attachment is thus discriminating and specific” (Salande & Hawkins, 2016). Without an attachment to an adult, a child has no guidance or direction in life. Therefore, if a child grows up in an unstable family structure, this child is more likely to develop an insecure attachment style in adulthood. Attachment theory confirms the importance of human relationships and their consequences for individual development (Schneider, 1991). As one continues to grow into an adult, it is important to have one to look up to for guidance, no matter what the situation may be.
Psychology Assignment. Whilst the process of attachment in early life may appear straightforward, there is however, a number of theories that can explain how this can vary. The development and importance of attachment in early life is well portrayed in psychological theory and in psychological research. The definition of attachment according to Bowlby (1982) (Psychological Science by Michael Gazzaniga Page 366) is that "attachment is a strong, emotional connection that persists over time and across circumstances". In order for a human being to have a successful social life in later years, it is of the utmost importance that emotional bonds act as building blocks for development.
Attachment in early life is a fundamental aspect of child development and the establishment of intimate and reciprocal relationships with caregivers. Shaffer & Kipp (2007) define attachment as ‘a close emotional relationship between two persons, characterized by mutual affection and a desire to maintain proximity’. Contrary to the original view of infant attachment as a ‘secondary drive’ of the dependency on caregivers for physiological needs, such as hunger; Bowlby (1969, 1973) proposed that all infants are born with an innate bias to form an attachment to a primary attachment figure to whom they can seek comfort, or a ‘secure base’ during stressful circumstances. It is proposed by Ainsworth (1967) that parental sensitivity is crucial to shaping the security and development of the initial infant-parent attachment relationship, however the phenomenon of attachment requires both infants and caregivers to contribute in the formation of the attachment bond. Ultimately, the quality of attachment in early life shapes both the social and emotional
First Theorist Question 1 – Name your theorist: Edward John Mostyn Bowlby (1907-1990) Attachment Theory References: Mcleod, S. A. (2007). Bowlby’s Attachment Theory, https://www.simplypsychology.org/bowlby.html https://www.goodtherapy.org/famous-psychologist/john-bowlby.html http://www.psychology.sunysb.edu/attachment/online/inge_origions.pdf Question 2 – Summarise the key ideas of the theory: Edward John Mostyn was born I London (1907-1990). John Bowlby was a psychoanalyst and created the attachment theory, as a joint team with Mary Ainsworth. John Bowlby created the basic beliefs of the theory and he developed our way of thinking about a child’s conection, with his or her mother and it’s interference through the separation, deprivation and bereavement.
This will be supported with a reference to attachment theory. Attachment theory established an infant 's earliest relationship with their primary caregiver shaped their development and reflects on their self-esteem (Bowlby, 129), according to Bowlby, the development of attachment affected by the relationship with the caregiver in early age (birth to age 6 weeks), and then the child grows older and begin to understand his parent 's feelings. Also, he needs to develop a relationship with at least one primary caregiver for the child 's successful social, psychological, and emotional development. In insecure or avoidant attachment the infant is "indifferent and seems to avoid the mother or the primary caregiver, they are as