Rubrics are evaluation guides that provide feedback on several different learning objectives, recognizing where a student falls into the spectrum of proficiency for each objective. Teachers should model the use of rubrics early in the class and explain to the students the importance of the holistic grading. When the students get used to the concept, they can use the rubrics to evaluate their own progress. Through the use of rubrics the teacher can receive information that reveals gaps between students’ perceived performance and actual performance (Alpert,
According to Moss (2012, p. 235), “assessment is a process of collecting and interpreting evidence of student progress to inform reasoned judgments about what a student or group of students knows relative to the identified learning goals” and the process by which the assessment is carried out solely depends on the purpose of the assessment. In order to carry out a quality assessment, Clarke (2014) states that five key points must be considered when constructing an assessment and include clear purpose, clear targets, sound design, effective communication and students involvement. When planning an assessment the first key point, clear purpose, is of significant importance as understanding the types of assessment processes and the results they
The principle of validity is to make sure that the measurements and assessments we obtain reflect what we want them to reflect. It represents the extent to which confident decisions can be made on the basis of test results. The overall concept of validity can be broken down into a number of aspects: content validity, construct validity, concurrent validity, predictive validity, and face validity. Content Validity refers to the extent to which the test provides both a satisfactory sample of the syllabus and information about the students’ ability in the aspects we are interested in. Construct Validity is based on the degree to which the items in a test reflect the aspects of the theory on which the test is based.
1.1 Language Assessment Language assessment serves dual purpose in applied linguistics, first it operationalizes the theories of applied linguistics and, secondly, it provides applied linguistics with data for analyzing language knowledge as well as language use (Clapham, 2000). 1.1.1 Testing and Assessment Language testing and assessment are commonly misunderstood in the field of education as being synonymous terms but they are quite different constructs. A test is defined by Brown (2003) as a method to measure an individual’s ability, knowledge and performance. This definition outlines three components of a test. First, it is a tool that requires the test-taker to perform in a given domain.
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Overview This research is concerned with setting classroom management in the first two weeks of the school year in kg1 class. To be able to decide on the best effective classroom management strategies kg1 teachers should use in order to facilitate effective teaching and learning, important facts will be discussed and different aspects will be considered in this research. This research will be divided into the following chapters. Chapter one is the introduction that consists of the background, significance of the study, purpose of the study, and the research questions. Chapter two is the literature review that highlights the importance of classroom management in kg1 class, and introduces two components of classroom management
Methodology In order to find out the extent to which, the interpretation of results made by teachers-raters might bias assessment processes, one of the two oral performance assessment was intervened (Task 2: Ted Talk, see *appendix), examined and analysed, paying special attention to the assessment tool, which in this case is a hybrid rubric (see appendix), as its design obeys to, at least, two of the three different validation models previously presented: content and criterion; and the interpretation that each rater comes to, while contrasting the student’s performance to the criteria described in the rubric. The performance assessment type in question, deals with interpretations of results and their use. Regarding this, perspectives may
After conducting interviews, the interviewer is required to explain the state of the interviewee with the theory. In other words, he/she need to theorize structures and processes of the phenomenon such as why the fact happened, what kind of conditions made it happen, and which factors made it happen at the level of theories. The reason grounded theory approach was chosen was it assists the process of theorizing and categorizing collected data coherently and precisely. In order to analyze the date with grounded theory approach, at first, the date should be divided into a small group from the context and named to each group. Second, each small group will be re-categorized into some groups which have similarities.
A deductive design might test to see if this relationship or link did obtain on more general circumstances” (Gulati, 2009: 42). In other words, when a deductive approach is being followed in the research the author formulates a set of hypotheses that need to be tested. Then, through implementation of relevant methodology the study is going to prove formulated hypotheses right or wrong. Sneider and Larner (2009) inform that in deductive approach reasoning starts with a theory and leads to a new hypothesis, which is going to be confirmed or rejected as a result of the
In general, there were two approaches that could be applied to teach grammar: deductive and inductive. This dichotomy was built upon rule-based and example-based teaching. The deductive approach, also known as a 'top down ' approach, was a rule-based teaching style that involved explaining the grammar item to learners before they encountered how rules functioned in language and then applying it; therefore, the deductive approach was one of the explicit teaching styles (Cowan, 2008). This approach was derived from the notion of deductive reasoning where the concept went from the general to the specific. It can also be called rule driven learning.
For example, a classification approach is used (Minaei Bidgoli et al., 2003) to classify students to predict their final year performance based on different parameters derived from the data in an educational web-based system. A clustering algorithm is used (Tsai, Tseng, & Lin, 2009) to categorize students with similar behavioral characteristics. Association rule mining techniques have frequently been used to solve educational problems and carry out critical analysis in an academic environment for improving the learning process of student. These efforts are carried out in order to raise the standards and administration of educational processes by investigating the learning systems, learning resources arrangements, and students’ results, curriculum restructuring, and institutional websites (Damasevicius, 2009; Talavera, & Gaudioso, 2004; Erdogan, & Timor, 2005). A very comprehensive review of data mining in education from 1995 to 2005 is published in 2007 by Romero and Ventura.