Logos gives birth to rationality, upon which natural and sacred rights hinge, for “reason, which is that law [of natural rights] teaches all mankind, who will but consult it, that being all equal and independent, no one ought to harm another in his life, health, liberty, or possessions”. Thus, because all men possess logos, they possess reason, which grants them natural rights independent of political association. This interplay between logos and natural rights forms the crux of Hamilton’s
It is evident in this particular writing, and many others, that Jefferson is a metaphysical idealist. He invokes Nature’s God as being the giver of law and the rights of man. In being so given by God, a right is personally held as property which cannot be abridged and is such an important gift that it ‘impels them to separate’ from those who might fetter these things. The gift is held by all mankind equally and separately, not as a whole; keeping with Jefferson’s views on property rights. Truth is ‘self-evident’, all mankind is ‘created equal’, and are granted ‘unalienable rights’.
Chapters two and three regard Locke on the state of nature and the state of war of man. According to Locke, the original state that all men are in is a state of perfect freedom and also in a state of equality. According to Locke, no one man is born with advantages or powers “unless the Lord and Master of them all should by any manifest declaration of his will set one above another” (Locke 269). To support his own ideas, Locke quotes the judicious Hooker, who the equality of men the basis of his ideas on mutual love amongst men. Hookers ideas basically state that if one wants his own needs to be satisfied by others, he must first satisfy their needs.
Finally, at the conclusion of the story, Equality decides that his, “home will become the capital of a world where each man will be free to exist for his own sake.” For one to exist for themselves, by their own wishes and desires, they must first free themselves from the suffocating ideals of collectivism. For the society that Equality envisions creating, instating rules that would limit the
The social contract in John Locke’s declaration is the State of Nature. The natural condition of mankind is a state of perfect and complete liberty to conduct one’s life as one best sees fit. Locke’s social contract is best described as freedom from the interference of others in one’s life. The State of Nature is pre-political, but it is not pre-moral by today’s standards. Another social contract from Locke is the Law of Nature.
Colonists have the right to live, the right to be free, and the right to seek happiness. Jefferson said, “We hold these truths to be self-evident that all men are created equal that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these a Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness…” It also stated that Britain didn’t serve the colonies. One example would be that King George Ⅲhad tried to take away people's rights, and made everyone pay taxes. People would be punished if they hadn’t payed the taxes. When the document was finally finished, the Second Continental Congress had voted to accept the Declaration of Independence.
With it, he justifies absolute monarchy, his ideal political regime. According to him, the sovereign needs unconditional obedience — the sine qua non condition for a state of peace, unless he is unable to keep the people safe. His Leviathan is created by the union of men, the head being the ruler and the body the people: “For by art is created that great ‘Leviathan’ called a ‘Commonwealth’ or ‘State,’ in Latin civitas, which is but an artificial man, though of greater stature and strength than the natural, for whose protection and defense it was intended; and in which the ‘sovereignty’ is an artificial ‘soul,’ as giving life and motion to the whole body”. Authority is what is preserving the state: “Covenants, without the sword, are but words and of no strength to secure a man at all.” Hobbes is trying to reinstate this sense of unity in political community even though he paints the absolute monarch as a god, rising above the covenant. Consequently, he is above justice as he is the most apt to serve the public interest and well-being of the people seeing as it is meshed with his private interest.
In his most well-known work Leviathan, Hobbes dictates that all humans are similar, they have same objective and adopt the same means of obtaining it. When he talks about the reasons why people want to create a legal state, he refers to the basic nature and behavior of humans. He mentions state of nature which is hypothetical condition of no-government. In the state of nature, every man would have whatever he could obtain by whatever means and property would be one’s own only as long as one could keep it. There is no restriction, no morality, no law in the state of nature, and people are consistently engaged in the “war of every man against every man”.
Voltaire was a strong advocate of freedom of speech and believed that all rational human beings were capable of thinking for themselves and therefore did not need any institutions thinking for him. One of the main aspects of his philosophy, was that one should doubt everything until proven otherwise, also known as empiricism. He believed that reason and logic added to science were the key components that would create an Enlightened man. Like most philosophers during the Enlightenment, Voltaire was a strong believer that man was born with three natural rights; life, liberty and right to property. In his major works he explored many themes.
Over-all, “natural law decides what actions would be ethically right, and what wrong, in a community that had no government; and positive law ought to be, as far as possible, guided and inspired by natural law.” What Locke says is simply that natural law guarantees to all men complete liberty and equality, while at the same time it forbids anyone to infringe upon the rights of anyone else, be they the rights of life, liberty or possessions. Obviously, if one has the right to life, he must have a right to the necessities of life’s preservation, one of the most vital of which is land, especially in the agricultural society. Also, if one has the right to property in land, he has that right, under natural law, only so far as the land is needed by him, not to the point of claiming another’s rightful