Introduction Motivation is one of the drivers for individual to achieve certain goals. Same goes to the organizational that need motivated employees to achieve the organizational target. That is the reason why motivated employees are vital for an organization to be success in the long term of period. There are many ways to motivate employees and employees can be motivated intrinsically and extrinsically. Motivational theories have two differences perspectives which are content and process theories.
According to Bartol and Martin (1998) Motivation is a most powerful weapon and positive behaviour and triggers the employee to continue work in organisation. It means, motivation is an internal drive to satisfying a need and to achieve a goal. Motivation is also a procedure that begins through a basic need or psychological need that stimulates a performance set by an objective. Contemporary theory for Motivation According to Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P (2002) Theory Author are summarize 35 years of empirical research on goal setting theory. They describe the core findings of the theory, basic premise is that specific and difficult goals, with self general review, lead to valuable and higher performance.
For instance, a certain company promises an employee $100 upon reaching performance targets or specific sales threshold (“The What and Why of Motivation,” n.d., p. 146). •Intrinsic motivation It refers to a form of motivation that is nurtured in one self, instead of being “dependent” on external considerations, such as money or other incentives, for good performance. It relies on self-satisfaction, enjoyment and positive emotions on the work or task that one does (“The What and Why of Motivation,” n.d., p. 146). •McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y This theory is formulated by Douglas McGregor. Theory X pertains to “a pessimistic view of employees,” in which they are not satisfied with their work, must be constantly “monitored,” and must be compensated or punished.
Vroom, Porter & Lawler, Adams and Locke studied motivation from a “process” viewpoint. CONTENT THEORIES 1. Abraham Maslow’s theory – Hierarchy of Needs Abraham Maslow introduced his theory in his article “A theory of Human Motivation”, in 1943 (Maslow, 1943). According to Abraham Maslow, a person attempts to fulfill a higher need when his lower needs are satisfied. A higher level need serves as a motivation only when the lower level need is satisfied and is no longer a source of motivation.
MOTIVATION Motivation According to Ormrod (2014) defined motivation is something that energizes, directs, and sustains behavior; it gets students moving, points them in a particular direction, and keeps them going. Motivation influences the way people perceive their learning environments, and it influence how much one could learn, as well as the amount of effort and sacrifice one is willing to invest in learning (McCombs & Whisler, 1997). According to McCown & Tohnson (1991) stated behavior is affected by numerous sources, where the perceived environment influence the attitudes such as, beliefs, feelings and behavioral intention of person. Intrinsic mean the psychological need, about our personal, causation, reflectance and curiosity Reeve (1992). Intrinsic motivation is defined as the doing of an
MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS Abraham Maslow (1908 - 1970) was a well-known American psychologist. He made his most important academic contributions in the 1940s and 1950s. He is considered one of the founders of 'humanist psychology ' According to humanist psychologist Abraham Maslow , our actions are motivated in order to achieve certain needs. Maslow first introduced his concept of a hierarchy of needs in his 1943 paper "A Theory of Human Motivation" and his subsequent book Motivation and Personality. In the 1970s, the psychologist Abraham Maslow suggested that people are motivated by a hierarchy of needs.This hierarchy suggests that people are motivated to fulfill basic needs before moving on to other, more advanced needs.
A number of people erroneously believe that motivation is a personal characteristic. They assume that only a selected group of people have it. On the contrary, motivation is very complex. It is defined as the stimulation that sets off and triggers intrinsic desire and enthusiasm in individuals to perform in a particular way. When individuals anticipate that their actions will be valued and lead to goal accomplishments and rewards, they get motivated to satisfy their needs.
Abstract: This essay will review what is motivation, and what is necessary for a manager to motivate its employees. This essay will also review Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs, Alderfer’s Learned need theory, McClelland’s theory of needs, Herzberg’s Two-Factor theory and how to implement this theories in practice in order to create a successfully motivated team which will complete their goals without any issues. Introduction What is motivation? Motivation is the energizer that gives people an ability to take action related to their needs, desires, fears and aspirations. Motivation isn't something a manager can create, it is something a manager has to encourage in people in order to enhance their productivity.
The reading “A Theory of Human Motivation” written by Abraham H. Maslow analyses the human needs and motivations by categorizing the needs by hierarchical importance of the physiological, safety, love, esteem, and self-actualization needs. The author stated that some of the needs are more important than others but interdependency among them are indispensable. Maslow argued, “Any motivated behavior, either preparatory or consummatory, must be understood to be a channel through which many basic needs may be simultaneously expressed or satisfied” (p. 142). The first basic need is the physiological need which concentrates in the importance of maintaining the body with nutriment, in order to maintain all other needs fully equipped to balance the
Motivation is the "Set of forces that initiates, directs, and makes people persist in their efforts to accomplish a goal." The three main elements that determine an individuals' motivation are initiation, direction, and persistence. "Initiation of effort is concerned with the choices that people make about how much effort to put forth in their jobs." Direction of effort is how employees determine where their effort is located within accomplishing their job. Lastly, persistence of effort is associate with how long individuals put effort into their job before diminishing their motivation.