It is up to each individual state to struggle and fight for its own survival. This makes it decide its interests and ways of achieving power. Anarchy, therefore leads to a point whereby power plays a big role when shaping the relations between the states. Realists describe anarchy as an outstanding feature in international relations. Globalization questions the separation of the international relations and the domestic relations which threatens the centrality of this main concept.
Whereas the Realist, Pluralist and Dependency approaches all rely on strong assumptions about power, influence and the rules to which they give rise, a Globalist view which however assumes no such structures. As Devetak (1996) stated, foreign policy decision making and action produces a very indeterminate world. Nonetheless, some have defined such a world as essentially post-modern; that is one in which there are no settled structures of authority and in which individuals or groups hold no settled positions. 4.0 Constraints on Foreign Policies A country’s Foreign Policy is determined by two broad considerations: the domestic and the foreign environment. Constraints may stream from factors imposed by the international system and human agency that is, from the role of individual choice in shaping the international system.
Sovereignty for states could mean two things: either in relation to the government within its territory or its relationship with other states. All international laws are drafted in such a way that that the sovereignty of states is preserved unless it involves an issue considered to be a threat to international peace and security. International Criminal law is embodied in the form of treaties and customs that all states have agreed to adhere to however, in exercising their sovereignty, states are only obligated to adhere to statutes or treaties to which they are signatories. Now, the ICC is obligated to deal with matters regarding genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity however, it has been criticized on the basis that since it is an independent entity, it has powers to supersede the sovereignty of states. “Senator John Ashcroft, a US Foreign Relations Committee Member and later the Attorney General in the George W. Bush administration, has argued that a criminal court will comprise sovereignty in a fundamental manner” (Wind, 2009).
Power politics is the core of realism, as realism assumes that states merely do something based on their national interest, and through whatever means necessary, including the means above. Realism Realism is one of the mainstream theories in International Relations and I believe it is safe to say that this paradigm is commonly used or at least known throughout the world. From International Organization Pease Fifth Edition (2014), Realism is often referred to as power politics or realpolitik, realism’s central focus is the acquisition, maintenance, and exercise of power by states. In the eyes of classical realists, power will only be what we call as “hard” power, which are tangible military capabilities and to some extent, economic
Power is the key factor for all Realists. However, there are also some diversities within them about the idea of ‘’why do states want power?’’ Classical realists related this with human nature but structural realists are associated it with international system. Every state should pursue power in order to survive in the anarchy of international system according to structural realists. There are some assumptions between structural realists to get power. One of them is about anarchy of international system which means there is no higher authority above states.
The main aim of my work is to consider the principles of statutory interpretation and judicial precedent and analyse if judges had intervened with Parliament’s law making role. The modern British Parliament can trace its origins back to Anglo-Saxon government’s Witan. Later, in 1215, King John signed the Magna Carta, which stated that he should follow the advice of council (which later included representatives of the public and developed into parliament). The English Parliament started to limit the power of other institutions (i.e. the crown) over the years to a certain extent.
4.0 An Explanation of Realism, Liberalism, Constructivism and Post-Structuralism. 4.1 Realism Realism or political realism prioritizes national interests and security concerns in addition to moral ideology and social reconstruction. The term is often associated with political power. The term is often associated with political power. Realism believes that the state is the main actor of the most important in determining the direction of a country.
This main body of the UN has the role to settle legal disputes submitted to it by States in accordance to the international law as well as give advisory opinions on legal questions referred to it from authorized UN organs and specialized agencies. There we have the International Law, the organization that has the job to protect the international law itself, and the body of justification. With that, it proves that International Law exists made by the UN, as a model for states to behave upon the international system. It is, ideally, that IL is the model that all nations have to obey, but realistically, all nations are not enforced to International
It is more difficult to come to a concrete conclusion on because it is more difficult to prove. States acts because they feel “legally compelled” to do so. Evidence of what states believe in can be deduced from governmental departments and officials, legal officers, legislative institutions, courts, diplomatic agents and statements of political leaders. The two elements are required. State practice without opinion juris or the other way around will not be
Since realists look at the states as anarchic, they believe security is a main issue. To attain that security, they balance the power in order to stop the enemies. When talking about realists, they believe that when it comes to international relations there is no room for morality in that aspect. Instead there is a pressure between demands of morality and requirements of profitable political