The concept of self-esteem has been explained in several ways; all of which mention the self-evaluation of worth, value or importance. Self-esteem determines who the individual is, what he is capable of and what he can become. High self-esteem is not only viewed as a component of mental health, but also a factor that affects health and social behavior. Self-esteem is an assumed response to various events in one’s life and interventions such as treatment. Changes in one’s lifestyle and life, as a whole is a step closer to one’s ideal image of one’s self are thought to increase one’s self-esteem .
These effects are particularly apparent, and compelling in regard to behaviours that affects health. Judge et al(2002) argued the concepts of locus of control, neuroticism, generalized self-efficacy (which differs from Bandura 's theory of self-efficacy) and Self-esteem may be markers of the same higher order concept and demonstrated them to be related concepts. Social cognitive theory Psychologist Albert Bandura has defined self-efficacy as one 's belief in one 's ability to succeed in specific situations or accomplish a task. One 's sense of self-efficacy plays a major role with about how an individual approaches goals, tasks, and challenges. The theory of self-efficacy lies at the center of Bandura’s social cognitive
He critically observes the human behavior and personality. He figures out the authoritative and dominating factors that shape the person 's personality, thinking, cognition and motivational processes. According to Mulhollem,"Bandura simply observing the others and incorporating this concept into his theory". Social cognitive theory is a crust of the psychosocial, cognitive and behavior processing. This theory clearly asserts the humanistic elements such as individuality, contemplative self-awareness and cogitative reaction.
ABSTRACT: Terms such as imagery, visualization, mental practice, and mental rehearsal have been used interchangeably among researchers, sport psychology consultants, coaches and athletes to describe a powerful mental training technique (Taylor & Wilson, 2005). Mental imagery researchers especially in the area of sports psychology are evolving better ways toward helping athletes to enhance their performance. One of such areas of scientific research at seems to have gained ground among scholars is the mental imagery rehearsal. There is therefore every reason to explore how this psychological skill works in sports toward enhancing athletic performance. This paper is posed to answer the question of what mental imagery rehearsal is all about, as
Personality is a set of enduring traits and characteristics that relate to a person’s emotions, motivations, interpersonal interactions, and attitudes (Simmering, 2004). Personality is a pattern of relatively permanent traits and unique characteristics that give both consistency and individuality to a person’s behavior. Traits contribute to individual differences in behavior, consistency of behavior over time, and stability of behavior across situations. Personality traits are distinguishing qualities or characteristics of a person, that is, their readiness to think or act in a similar fashion in response to a variety of different stimuli or situations (Carver & Scheiver, 2000). According to Gordon Allport’s theory, traits are determining
The Hackman and Oldham’s job characteristics model was taken as the inspiration to generate a conceptual model for the studies. The three psychological states implemented in the model are skilled meaningfulness of the work, experienced duty for the outcomes of the work and knowledge of the actual consequences of the
“Individuals view the world though their schemas or implicit personality theory of Schneider, 1973” “This is an organized body of knowledge of the expectations about what attributes to personality typically co-occur in other people” (Baldwin, 1992 p462). One typically draws on past experiences that have had positive outcomes they repeat theses actions to create a schema over time shaping their personality and how they respond in the context of other people. ‘People tend to recall and interpret ambiguous information in a way that is consistent to the schemas they have developed’ (Baldwin,
The two studies were examined through distinct focal points of two different theoretical approaches, Leary’s sociometer theory (1999) and Henriques’ Unified Theory of Psychology (2011). The HUTP underlines that cultural aspect plays an important role in human self-esteem, thus, leads to the assumption that socialization will influence self-esteem, after controlling for social influence. On the other hand, Leary (1999) proposes that self-esteem is a measurement that monitors interactions between people and transports signals to the person to keep them in check with how socially acceptable their behaviors are. Hence, when people feel accepted or relationally valued by others, they should experience an increase level of self-esteem, whereas when they feel rejected or a lack of relational value, they should experience a comparatively low level of self-esteem. People have evolved to have a psychological gauge for sensing signals from these interactions concerning how well their behaviors are integrating them into society and how much they are being accepted or rejected (Anthony 2007, Leary
Such findings clearly confirm Rokeach’s (as cited in Pajares, 1992, p. 318) notion of belief system and, the identity of a self is being connected to the core beliefs which are hard to alter. Rokeach describes the belief system includes one’s beliefs, attitudes and values which take different forms and functional connections (as cited in Pajares, 1992) in an individual’s make up. Thus, it is imperative in defining teacher professional identity, the function of self’s belief system and, how it makes
When people symbolize their experiences, it gives structure, meaning and continuity to their lives. Another distinctive quality of social cognitive theory and an important point in this theory is the capacity for self directedness and forethought (that people plan a course of action and set challenges and goals that guide their future activities). It is said that after we adopt some personal standard, our subsequent actions, behavior motivation are regulated by the positive and negative consequences of those standards. We all engage in things that provide some form of satisfaction and self worth, and tend to shy away from actions that devalue the self (Pajares, 2002). Behavior can be predicted by predicting perceived self efficacy (a person’s beliefs about the capabilities) over actual accomplishments,