From this perspective, an impoverished life is one without the freedom to undertake activities that a person has reasons to choose to be able to lead a minimally decent and dignified life. More generally, social exclusion could take the form of what Adam Smith described as a key component of social life—not being able to appear in public without shame. This is closely related to the distinction that Sen has made in the concept as ‘Active’ and ‘Passive’ exclusion. This is defined in terms of the presence or absence of deliberate attempt of exclusion. For example, poverty as a result of unemployment due to exclusion of a certain group from employment opportunities is what could be
This essay seeks to explore some of the socio cultural factors that precipitate and sustain the Aids pandemic and some recommendations of containing the spread of HIV and Aids will be presented. Poverty is one of the main issues in Sub Saharan countries and it influences men and women differently. It is a key factor leading to behaviours that exposure people to the chance of HIV infections. Poverty increases vulnerability to contracting HIV in different ways and these include increased migration to city areas, exploitation; and gender inequality. The chance of HIV infection is additionally
Gender norms and inequalities are major contributors to the spread of HIV/AIDS. According to the Mayo Clinic (2004), “AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) is a chronic, potentially life-threatening condition caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). By damaging your immune system, HIV interferes with your body 's ability to fight the organisms that cause disease”. HIV is a sexually transmitted infection that spreads through the contact with infected blood. Gender inequality greatly impact women being more likely to be infected with
HIV-related humiliation and discrimination are very important concerns for families that are affected by HIV/AIDS. Sometimes it becomes very difficult for the children of those families that are affected from HIV/AIDS to understand the immoral behavior of the people towards them. Then they start feeling different from children around them which lead to isolation and
Summarized below is what is known with regard to the burden of disease, the determinants of transmission, and the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of existing prevention interventions. Burden of Disease As a result of large-scale implementation of data collection methods for surveillance worldwide and enhanced methods for validating and interpreting HIV-related data, the HIV/AIDS epidemic is probably one of the best documented epidemics in history. An increasing number of data sources contribute to reasonably accurate estimates and a more nuanced understanding of the epidemic’s trends. Unfortunately, this relatively accurate picture of where the epidemic is and has been is not matched by similarly convincing maps of the factors that explain its spread. Although no single country has been spared the virus, the epidemic has affected certain regions of the world disproportionately, and Sub-Saharan Africa remains by far the hardest hit region (table 18.1).
It is one of the deadliest diseases in the world and the number of HIV AIDS victims is increasing rapidly. It doesn’t show specific symptoms but as the disease progresses, it starts to affect the person’s immune system and hence the person can easily get infections, diseases and tumors. HIV is found in the body fluids of an infected person, which includes semen, vaginal and anal fluids, and blood and breast milk. It is a fragile virus and does not live very long outside the body. According to statistics from the Health Protection Agency, 95% of those diagnosed with HIV in the UK in 2011 acquired HIV as a result of sexual contact.
These people, who become infected with HIV are further stigmatized and discriminated upon, therefore, perpetuating this cycle of negative perception and actions. This continues to create barriers throughout their lives with respect to family, work and health care. These barriers created are obviously seen and felt, especially when people living with HIV/AIDS are rejected by friends and families, denied access to health care or employment, or prohibited from travelling   . According to UNAIDS, more than 50% of people in more than one third of countries with available data, reported having unfavourable attitudes and beliefs towards people living with HIV/AIDS; with about one in every eight persons not having access to healthcare services  . This was highlighted in a previous study which observed that, those reporting high levels of stigma were more likely to report having poor access to healthcare
INTRO It was found that the second largest social group to be affected by HIV/AIDS in the United Kingdom was African communities. Although studies have been previously done on the group, there has been no evidence highlighting African communities as being worse off in terms of sexual healthcare than any other ethnic groups. Yet there is continuous negative social backlash towards HIV and the elements that surround it. Contemporary statistics on HIV/AIDS indicates that HIV positive Africans may have contracted the disease before entering the United Kingdom. Thus there is a greater advocacy for HIV testing in high-risk populations.
Social exclusion is a much broader concept than poverty but it does encompass it. It focuses on what factors prevents an individual from having the same opportunity given to the majority of the community. In India even though the caste system was abolished in the 1950’s it is yet hard to get rid of the age old system that segregates the society groups such as the Adivasi’s and davits aka untouchables or even out caste are considered to be the lowest in the caste system and are excluded in many spheres of life. This I believe in some way creates an artificial poverty line which divides people based on caste, gender and religion. Birth would decide their occupation and their economic fate.
Of those deaths, the majority occurred on the African continent, with some 1.5 million African fatalities attributed to disease in the same year. Africa has suffered from the devastation of HIV/AIDS for decades and attempts at containing and eradicating the disease have been many in number and unsuccessful; there are however groups within African society that are often ignored by modern AIDS prevention strategies. African women and men who have sex with men are at a increased risk of contracting HIV, due to their unequal social, political and economic standing, fail to be reached by conventional intervention