Research approach can be categorized into quantitative and qualitative research (Yates, 2004; Creswell, 2009). For this study, both quantitative and qualitative approaches were adopted. The adoption of each of the approaches in any research process come along with their limitations; therefore biases inherent in any of the methods could nullify or neutralize the biases of other methods (Hurmerinta – Peltomaki & Nummela, 2006). Usually, quantitative research conducts a deductive approach to the relationship between theory and research which focus on testing of theory (Bryman & Bell, 2011; Yin, 2008). Conversely, qualitative research emphasizes the words rather than quantification with data.
It could also be defined as social research that uses empirical methods and empirical statement. Since quantitative research is about collecting numerical data to explain a phenomenon, particular question seem immediately suited to being answered using quantitative method. Quantitative research is a systematic process used to gather and statistically analyze information that has been measured by an instrument. Instruments are used to convert information into numbers. It examines phenomenon through the numerical representation of observations and statistical analysis.
In hypothesis testing, the ANOVA, T-Test, or Chi-Square is used to investigate if a hypothesis’s mean is true or false. Hypothesis testing involves developing the null hypothesis, choosing the suitable test static, identifying the statistical significance, deciding the decision rule to reject or not reject the null hypothesis, and collecting the data and completing the required calculations. The null hypothesis is simply a statement, which the investigator comes up with, that is being tested. Static testing involves using a value that is consistent and is computed from the data, such as the mean or mode. It measures the similarity or dissimilarity between the data and the null hypothesis.
Qualitative research explores phenomena and relies heavily on extensive interviewing. Once its data is collected, its research is modified according to what is found (Mack et al., 2005). Quantitative research, however, attempts to prove or disprove existing hypotheses concerning phenomena (Mack et al., 2005). It employs very rigid surveys, observations, and questionnaires. Despite their differences, both qualitative and quantitative research are effective and evidence
It’s a quantitative method that is specifically used in psychology researches and it examines whether two variables such as events, behaviuors, properties, and characteristics are casually related. In other words, it is a scientific and systematic approach to research, in which the researcher can manipulate and control the variables i,e an independent variable is manipulated and the dependent variable is measured and it could be called a true experiment. The main advantage of this method is that it allows us to determine and regulate cause and effect, and further it allows us to control the effects of extraneous variables. Experimental method involves some kind of measurement and a mathematical calculation is frequently involved. Latane and Darley used this method to examine bystanders behaviour.
As a result of situational differences in every research, social and cultural contexts would vary. On top of that, the provision of some contextual description of the research would lower the risks of the readers misinterpreting the study and consequently, the results. Thus, contextualization is the key to revealing the various context in which a particular research lies in. This is important in the development of the psychology of leadership research and theory building because the setting of the research could be different, and hence possibly resulting in different sets of results altogether. For instance, the trait perspective in leadership research could either be done in a lab setting or in a workplace setting, both of which would have observed different implications on the results.
For this research, Quantitative study was used as it involved deduction. Hypotheses was formulated; the dependent and independent variables were identified which assisted in measurements of objectives. Data was collected by using close-ended questionnaires. 5.1 Research paradigm According to the requirements of research question, it was decided that it would be appropriate to choose the positivism approach as the philosophical assumption and research paradigm for the study. Besides this, the quantitative approach was used during this research.
Its interdisciplinary orientation，which allows avoiding disciplinary restrictions. 2. The principle of triangulation, which implies a quasi-kaleidoscopic move towards the research object and enables the grasp of many different facets of the object under investigation. 3. The historical analysis，which allows transcending static spotlights and focusing on the diachronic reconstruction and explanation of discursive change.
In this report I am going to be comparing and contrasting quantitative and qualitative methods of research. Quantitative data is data that is generally focused on numbers for example methods like questionnaires and official statistics. Qualitative data is data that is a lot more in depth for example interviews and observations. I am going to be comparing questionnaires with interviews and official statistics with observations. Questionnaires are used to collect quantitative data as the results can be expressed with numbers.
In quantitative research, variables are identified and defined, and then relevant data is collected from study participants. A strength of this type of research is that the data is in numeric form, making it easier to interpret. It also studies the relationship between independent and dependent variables and can address questions such as does a relationship between variables exist, what is the direction of the relationship, how strong is the relationship between the variables, and what is the nature of the relationship. To be able to discover and answer the cause-and-effect relationship is a strength of quantitative research. Lastly, in quantitative research, the study can either be experimental or nonexperimental, meaning clinical trial or observational study, allowing for different types of research studies to be conducted.