The principle of self-government provided the basis for republican governments and democracy in the United States. • Separation of Powers: Separation of power in the Constitution provided that the government should be split up into different branches to avoid concentration of power on one central leader. This power was distributed between the Legislative Branch, also known as Congress, the Executive Branch, which consists of the Presidency, and the Judicial Branch. Each branch was given its specific powers and responsibilities. Therefore, the separation of power was included to limit the powers of the government.
In 1790, Irishman Edmund Burke published Reflections of the Revolution in France as a letter of stark critique against the French Revolution. A conservative, Burke’s philosophy of human nature highlighted society as prior to individuals and emphasized tradition. Within his conservative model, no one was born into a “state of nature,” for the mental experiment of a social contract was merely absurd. Instead, he viewed society as inherently organic and unlike a machine. Moreover, his major argument against the French Revolution was its foundation on abstract ideals, that although possibly desirable, could have problematic consequences of tyranny and disorder.
There are four main elements that explained postmodernism’s quasi-phenomenology of the state. First one is a genealogical analysis of the modern state’s ‘origins’ in violence. Modern political thought has attempted to transcend illegitimate forms of rule where power is unconstrained, unchecked, arbitrary and violent, by founding legitimate, democratic forms of government where authority is subject to law. The second one is an account of boundary inscription. To inquire into the state’s constitution, as postmodernism does, is partly to inquire into the ways in which global political space is partitioned.
Marx’s first criticisms are towards the concept of liberal democracy as defined by John Stuart Mill. Mill describes liberal democracy as a society in which the government promotes the common good of the citizens by recognizing the natural right of private property, the tendency towards market economies, and the equality in social and economic opportunities as well as in personal and civic liberties. (Mill, John Stuart. "On Liberty: Chapter 1.”). Marx believed instead that liberal democracy does not represent the best type of government since it does not correspond to a natural order but rather reflects a very human abstract view of society.
He relocated civil society at the level of the superstructure, along with the state, and he argued that civil society was the site for contest and conflict for establishing hegemony over society. Contrary to Hegel and Marx, Gramsci differentiated civil society from both the state and economy. This distinction between state and civil society guided further theorists to explain civil society functioning outside the state. According to him, civil society is a sphere of social life where individuals exercise their free will without any control of state. Quite contrary to Marx, he did not include economy in civil society, and instead included churches, schools, trade unions and media in it.
The administrative powers were the executive, the legislative, and the judicial. These should be separate from and dependent upon each other so that the influence of any one power would not be able to exceed that of the other two, either singly or in combination. This was a radical idea because it completely eliminated the three Estates structure of the French Monarchy: the clergy, the aristocracy, and the people at large represented by the Estates-General, thereby erasing the last vestige of a feudalistic structure. Likewise, there are three main forms of government, each supported by a social "principle": • Monarchies (free governments headed by a hereditary figure, e.g. king, queen, emperor), which rely on the principle of honor.
This thesis of governmentality allows Foucault to depart from the Marxist and liberal tradition that sees in the State the realization of an ideal. Foucault will see the State as a practical entity. This reading of the State makes it possible to see that the governance of bodies and population is given through of rationalities of government, outside of particular power
Thomas Hobbes and John Locke are two theorists known for their views regarding the social contract. Both theorists study the origins of government and the level of authority given to the state over individuals, thoroughly constructing their arguments through the social contract. A philosophical approach was used in both Hobbes’s and Locke’s arguments, however supporting different authorities. Thomas Hobbes advocates for absolutism whilst John Locke advocates for a constitutional government. Through the close examination of the state of nature, the relationships between subject and sovereign and views regarding the social contract, one can observe a more sensible basis for constructing a successful political society.
Rawls was a liberal moral and political philosopher, who attempted to construct a philosophy concerning justice and a theory for establishing political frameworks designed to preserve two important tenets of social justice and individual liberty. His writing is itself a reaction, he writes in response and as an alternative to the predominant theory of utilitarianism, which suggests that justice is defined by that which offers the largest amount of good to the greatest number of people. Rawls introduces a thought experiment, a theoretical person who, shrouded in what he called a “veil of ignorance”(REF NEEDED), must somehow design a society that is just without any foreknowledge of their own place within that society. From this objective stance, which he refers to as the original position, this hypothetical individual would choose a conception of justice that adequately provides for the worst off in society. This would happen as, owing to the objectivity of the individual, they may end up in a lower class in society and would want provided for if that was the case.
James Maddison proposed and implemented this scheme so that the rights and influences of each branches would be conditioned and balanced by the other parts, which gives Congress the right to passing law, the President the right of enforcing the law, and the Court to interpreting the law. Based on the Article I, II, and III of the constitution of the United Stated, the principle of separation of powers stipulates that the executive, legislative and judicial powers of the government should be divided into three different branches, rather than into one branch. Its purpose is to prevent power concentration and provide checks and balances. Thus, separation of power refers to dividing the responsibility into different branches to restrict any branch from exercising its core functions from another