Unit 7 is a rather long section covering both Rome and China 's powerful and expansive empires during the time period 300 BCE - 300 CE. The Han Dynasty and Imperial Rome were very similar in their unprecedented scale and duration. Although they did operate in differing ways, for example, Rome relied on slaves to expand its workforce, while the Chinese 's economy lived off of free peasant farmers. The Chinese benefited from having an overwhelming population that would benefit the bureaucracy and supply political stability for the Hans. When it came to the Roman Empire, religion did not have the same impact that Confucianism had on the dynasties in China.
There was a big difference between classes that were military over the non-military classes of society. The classes particularly below the the military were expected to be overall good citizens, and were rewarded if they acted accordingly. In a text written in 1336 by Nikaido Ze’en named the Kemmu Code, there are many overarching rules proposed that are aimed for the average citizen in the local area. A few of these rules are taken from an excerpt of the Kemmu code, they are written out in a rough listed outline as
When discussing the influence of Confucianism in the Han empire it is clear to say that other than the concept of education, relationship also played role in the contribution of order in society. One of the most well known systems in grouping this idea were the Five Relationships or in what used to be called wu-lun. These include relationships between father and son, elder brother and younger brother, husband and wife, emperor and subject, and friend and friend. The most essential relationship during the Han dynasty would be the association between emperor and subject, in which, it is the job of a subject to serve the emperor but, it is also the job of the emperor to care for the subject. According to Taylor, “ The Five Relations are
Regimes already in power of nations tend to find ways to keep their dynasty in charge of those nations for long periods of times. Some of those Nations such as the Greeks believed in democracy, while others such as the Persians believed in harsh taxation and oppression of their subjects. Dominance from one group of people to another group of people is a concept that has spanned the lifetime of civilization. A great example of this is Eurocentrism which is followed by the White Man’s Burden during colonial times in early centuries in Europe and the United States. The superior race believed they were the ultimate race and needed to spread their transcendence to the rest of the world.
In Spain hierarchy had been based off wealth and political or social standing. Monarchs and church officials were at the top, non-Christians were at the bottom. In the Americas, power was usually given to the chiefs of the tribe and religious leaders, the people at the bottom were often slaves taken captive after tribal wars. The complexity of the social systems increased tremendously with the miscegenation of the various ethnicities the new contacts brought together. Originally it had benefitted Europeans to marry a local noble women, but when the mestizos, people of mixed Indian and European blood, became so common they threatened to overpower the Spaniards, the crown developed a new social system called the sociedad de castas.
Since the leader has all the power to himself, people then resign their general will to the government. Corruption could be lessened – or better yet, eliminated – since the power is limited when it comes to those who are in a lower position. Also, processing laws are implemented faster and easier unlike the process they do in democracy wherein two or three branches have to discuss it which then takes months and even worse – years. In this type of government, protection of the people is assured wherein laws that would be better for the common good are implemented. The only problem that would be bad for this is if the dictator seated is an extreme leader who would see violence as the best way to bring peace and stability to the country.
After the Qin Dynasty, it has become evident that legalism was very successful in helping to maintain order and controlling the country. So its philosophy was also adopted by the Han who used it to control its empire. Legalism provides a more practical approach to governing a country through the enforcement of law, deterring people from committing crime. Although China is not a legalist country, legalism has a profound impact on the legal system practiced by the government throughout Chinese history.
(Arendt, 1951, p.310) In a similar way, with the strong power and attractiveness of the leader, people can seldom discover challenge or criticism towards the leader of a totalitarian country with powerful leadership regime. (Arendt, 1951, p.310) Therefore, the release and enforcement of policies from the totalitarian regime may conduct with a higher efficiency since there ought to be less criticism and opposed opinion raised by the masses in the society than that of the society of a democratic country. People in most of the democratic countries enjoy plenty of freedom including the freedom of speech, which allows them to freely speak out their opinions towards the country regime, the government, or the policy, etc., in both supportive and against side to these subjects.
In ancient India, Caste system made the ancient India society orderly. The caste system as enforced with the help of law books such as Manusmriti and the support of kings who considered themselves as upholders of dharma. Caste system emphasize to human that everyone need to follow the high level human. No one can replace the ruler is a traditional opinion in ancient Indian’s brain. It decrease the number of people which want to rebel.
China’s Han dynasty and the Romans valued technology in their civilizations, but they used technology for different reasons to accommodate their empire. The Hans relied heavily on agriculture and developed technology to make labor easier and more efficient, which is depicted by some of their technology like iron metallurgy and water systems. In contrast, the Romans focused primarily on science and mathematics, so the intellectuals looked down on technology as it was used by slaves and for their labor. Han China’s attitude towards technology was more appreciative and focused on its benefits toward labor than the Romans who viewed technology as inferior and for the laborers in their class-divided society. All the documents written by the Han,
One of the difference between the Qin and the Han dynasty is that Qin dynasty practiced Legalism and the Han dynasty practiced Confucianism. For the Han dynasty, in Document 3, states that they had a exam system of giving opportunities for everyone across the dynasty who has outstanding moral and learning to have a chance to have a role in the government, which shows that the Han dynasty emperor gave more opportunities to the commoners. For the Qin in Document 2, says that the people follow the rules, and there are no trouble because the people understand what happens when they do not follow the rules, which leads to punishments. Which shows that the Qin dynasty had strict rules for people to just obey for the government and have no say. Taking
Perhaps the best way to do this would be to solely base bails off of risk assessments. By using the basis of risk for bails, then the system improves as it no longer disproportionately discriminates against people from low income backgrounds. Moreover this approach is within the limits of the Constitution as the basis of dangerous is not per se unconstitutional according to the precedents set forth by United States v. Salerno ("Bail"). Ultimately, as shown the modern American bail system fails to protect the constitutional rights of the accused.
But, of course, they do. Both the Chinese and Romans are guilty of this because they do not want to lose their power. This weakens the idea that Qin and Caesar are preferable rulers than their predecessors because they still have the same amount of power. The people still do not have a voice and that’s why their ideas and policies did not last forever. Eventually with the right amount of protesting, the people always get what they
The cure for this is to have a large amount of press to make sure it don’t become too powerful. Political parties were evil, but those parties from the beginning were good because their interests were in property. Whereas politicians during his visit only cared about victory not