What Is The Meaning Of Word Translation

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2.2 Word in different Languages 5
2.2.1 One-to-one relationship between a word and its meaning 5
2.2.2 Lexical meaning: 6-7
3.Conclusion 8
References 9

“Translation is not a matter of words only: it is a matter of making intelligible a whole culture.” --Anthony Burgess, 1984:4
4. Translation definition and history:
1.1 Definition:
Translation is the "realizing of meanings and effects in one language that correspond in some way to the meanings and effects realized in another" (Pope, 2002, p. 247)
1.2 History:
Translation existed long time ago since the tower of Babel in which different
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The Ancient Greek term is 'metaphrasis' ("to speak across") and this gives us the term 'metaphrase' (a "literal or word-for-word translation") - as contrasted with 'paraphrase' ("a saying in other words"). This distinction has laid at the heart of the theory of translation throughout its history: Cicero and Horace employed it in Rome, Dryden continued to use it in the seventeenth century and it still exists today in the debates around "fidelity versus transparency" or "formal equivalence versus dynamic equivalence". The first known translations are those of the Sumerian epic Gilgamesh into Asian languages from the second millennium BC. Later Buddhist monks translated Indian sutras into Chinese and Roman poets adapted Greek
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