According to Piaget, the process of constructing knowledge involves organizing personal experiences in terms of preexisting mental schemes. Constructivism views learning as changes that happens in an individual through the processes of assimilation and accommodation.
LEARNING THEORIES In spite of the fact that there are a wide range of ways to deal with learning, there are three essential sorts of learning hypothesis: behaviourism, intellectual constructivism and social constructivism. This segment gives a concise prologue to each sort of learning hypothesis. BEHAVIOURISM Behaviourism is a hypothesis of creature and human discovering that exclusive spotlights on impartially detectable practices and rebates mental exercises. Conduct scholars characterize learning as just the adjusting of new conduct. Learners are essentially latent and aloof retention of a predefined assemblage of information by the learner advanced by redundancy and uplifting feedback and negative support however revise behavioural
This study is anchored on the following theories and principles. These are the Dale’s Cone of Experience, Thorndike’s Law of Exercise, Gardner’s multiple intelligence’s theory, experiential learning and theory of psychomotor development. Fig. 1. Framework of the Study Dale’s Cone Experience Dale’s Cone of experience is a model that incorporates several theories related to instructional design and learning process.
1. SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY. The proponent of this theory is Albert Bandura. He hypothesizes that people learn from one another through observation, imitation, and modeling. Central to the theory is that new behavior can be acquired by observing and imitating other people’s behavior.
Two types of knowledge is identified in psycholinguistics; declarative and procedural knowledge. Declarative knowledge represent awareness of objects, events or ideas which is regarded as schemas. Procedural knowledge; on the other hand, describes how learners use their declarative knowledge. It entails the interrelating of schemas in to patterns (Jonassen, Beissner & Yacci, 1993). Structural knowledge is an intermediate type of knowledge that mediates the transition of declarative in to procedural knowledge and facilitate the application of procedural knowledge (Diekhoff, 1983).
2. Literature Review 2.1 The Development of Attribution Theory The attribution theory is one of the newly developed learning motivation theories. From the literal meaning, the attribution theory can be understood as the processing of attributing the consequences of acts or events to some causes. Historically, the study of motivation is the result of the analysis of behavior from the causes of behavior. Conversely, the attribution theory deduces the cause of behavior from behavioral consequences.
Feedback can provide students with information about strengths and weaknesses of responses, the outcomes achieved and students’ performance in relation to standards and to other students. For students, effective feedback on responses to assessment tasks should include: what was expected from the task? Like meaningful information about the quality of work, clear statements about how to improve, correction of misunderstandings, reinforcement of what has been done well. For teachers, effective feedback enables them to evaluate: teaching and learning programs, teaching strategies, assessment strategies, assessment task design, marking guidelines. (John Gore- CEO,
140). Thus, according to this theory, the interrelationships between the factors of knowing, feeling and doing something in relation to a specific object, also described as “the particular hierarchy of effects in operation,” (Solomon et al, 2006, p. 145) trigger the person‟s actual attitude towards that object. However, some authors have challenged this theoretical model and suggested alternative models to address consumers‟ attitude formation (Barry, 1987, p. 266). Ray (1973) proposed the models of cognition-affect-collation and conation-affect-cognition. The first one, also known as the learning hierarchy, suggested that people first think and perceive, then feel or develop attitudes, and then behave, whereas the second one proposed that “consumers first behave, then develop attitudes and feelings as a result of that behaviour, and then learn or process information that supports the earlier behaviour” (Barry, 1987, p. 266).
That can be controlled or modified our behavior and that can base on the consequences and antecedent of behavior. Behavior more or less to reoccur and that was based on the consequences and reinforcement that follow. For Example: Rewards and Punishment. In behaviorism students learn through Practice, positive experience and reshaping what is learnt. Now the popular permeates of learning’s vision is uses of technological system in the classroom.
The most important part of the assessment is the interpretation and the use of the information that is gleaned for its intended purpose assessment is embedded in the learning process, it is tightly interconnected with curriculum and instruction. As teachers and students work towards the achievement of curriculum outcomes, assessments plays a consent role in informing instruction, guiding the student’s next steps, and checking progress and achievement. Teachers use many different process and strategies for classroom assessment, and adapt them to suit the assessment purpose and needs of individual students. Research shows that students learn best when assessment are based on clear learning goals. It differs according to students learning