Attachment allows the children to have a secure base which is essential to explore, learn and uses the primary caregiver as a source of comfort (Benoit 2004).The way different children behave enables the parents to response in many different ways which are influenced by their attachment pattern (Rees 2007). Bowlby believed that an infant attachment behaviours are natural and will be activated by any condition which may threaten their proximity such as separation. The attachment relationship between the child and the caregiver prepares them for future relationships (Gantt et al 1995). Bowlby (1990) developed the attachment theory as a way of understanding how specific infants bond to others, he noticed infants engaging in certain behaviours such as smiling which led to a close and secure bond and relationship with their caregiver which portrayed a secure attachment towards their mother.
Erikson and Freud both believed potty training was an important part of this process. Erikson felt if the toddler could master his or her bodily functions then he or she will gain some independence and control. If this stage is completed successfully then the toddler will feel secure and confident, opposed to those who unsuccessfully complete this stage who have doubt and inadequacy. This stage involves quite a bit of parental support and Erikson believed if parents are too controlling during this stage they are breaking the toddler’s will. This leads into the next human strength, will.
For toddlers, routines provide security and they are a way of teaching children about how to look after themselves. The predictability of routines helps to reduce anxiety and the child can develop self-control. Nappy Changing Equipment required for nappy changing
At the age of 24-36 months, toddlers start to really engage in interactive play with their peers and they will also start using more imaginative play. Their understanding of other’s feeling will also tend to gradually increase along with their need to always be right in an argument. It is therefore important to spend more time focusing on how they understand feelings and express their feelings to others. Creative methods could be used such as reading story book or even using puppets. Some other aspects in how you can help your toddler; Help them understand healthy and non-harmful ways to express feelings, specially negative ones such as anger.
He created the cognitive development theory, which he divided into four discontinuous stages: the sensorimotor stage, preoperational stage, the concrete operational stage and the formal stage. The sensorimotor stage, from birth to age two, explains that an infant processes the world around them and learns with their eyes, ears, hands and mouth. This stage is important because motor skills develop from sucking and kicking to chewing and walking. Infants will also master object permanence which will help them in the later stages discover the world around them. The preoperational stage emphasizes the major change in symbolic activity, leading children into make-believe play.
Human development refers to the progress that human beings make in their lives. Alternatively, childhood development is the process through which a child advances from infancy to independence. This type of development has different domains, namely, physical (changes in the body), cognitive (changes in thinking), social (changes in the way an individual relate to others) and emotional (changes in an individual’s personality or feelings) domains (Woolfolk, 2012). These domains uniquely interact in a way that a child’s progress in one area, leads to achievement in another field. For instance, when a child learns how to walk or talk, he or she is exposed to a new environment that advances their development.
Habituation is a method that might be used to explore predictions of Piaget’s theory. 2a. The habituation technique is being used to study the memory of infants, who are being exposed to repeated stimulus. Infants becomes used to an object or event after being exposed to the same thing. Habituation is a decrease in responsiveness due to repeated stimulus.
Speech skills are referred to as receptive language skills and include making sounds to form words or the act of talking. Language skills are referred to as expressive language skills and entail using words to communicate what we feel or mean, and also being able to understand what others say. Children begin absorbing and learning their language and speech abilities right from the time they are in the womb. However, most of the developments take place between the ages of 2 and 5 years.
The attachment theory specifies that an infants and young child requires consistent relationships with people to thrive and develop. Attachment is described as a essential need with a biological basis where infants or young children need to maintain a sense of security with a specific person. Developing a secure attachment between the infant and their parents or guardian is an important part of early childhood development, due to the many things that can interfere with the development of a healthy attachment. Without a secure attachment, an infant may develop problems that can continue throughout their lives and affect the relationships with others. Approach behavior may be defined as locomotion in which a usual outcome of the distance between one person and one other specific person is observed to distinguish the distance between each individual and the attachment to one another.