Socrates, Plato and Aristotle—three philosophers that laid the foundation for Western philosophy as we know it today. In a chain of teacher-student relationships, Socrates’ teachings directly shaped Plato’s and in turn Aristotle’s philosophy. Together, their teachings had major implications for the meaning of education and the subsequent role it should play in society. The oldest of the three philosophers, Socrates, was born 470 BCE and passed in 399 BCE. Socrates has been credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy.
He wanted people to reach a state of fulfilment. Plato wrote 36 different books, which were imaginary discussions in which his teacher Socrates was the starring role. Some of his most famous books include The Republic, The Symposium, The Laws, The Meno, and The Apology. Because Aristotle often discusses issues by contrasting his views with those of his teacher, it is easy to be impressed by the ways in which they diverge (Meinwald, 2017). As a matter of fact, we can see pieces of this information in Raphael 's classic painting The School of Athens.
Whereas, Aristotle, begun to portrait the self as a set of multiple identities occurring in one individual (Gioia, 1998). Scholars and philosophers continued to study the notion of the personal identity throughout the centuries. Early modern western philosophers, including the French philosopher and mathematician René Descartes, have expanded the concept of Identity to include the reasoning mind. Actually, for Descartes, the self is a
This period is usually called pre-socratic philosophy, which is dominated by philosophers such as Pythagoras, Heraclitus, and Parmenides. However, what those philosophers presented were more philosophical problems, rather than insights into philosophy. Contrarily, what Plato and Socrates did was formulate methods and solutions. Therefore, they are more prominent figures. Despite all of this, there’s still a lot that can be learned from predecessors.
Plato is believed to have been born into a wealthy and influenced family in 428 BC in Athens. Plato while still a boy was familiar with Athenian politics and was expected to be a politician, but things turned around after his teacher Socrates was executed. He turned instead to philosophy with the idea of bringing true justice to mankind and also put an end to civil war. Plato set up the philosophy academy, a place for research and teaching for both theoretical and practical aspects. According to Plato, "just which type of desire rules individual soul depends on the relative strengths of his desires and the kind of education and socialization he receives".
By questioning the system itself and the people who make it up, Socrates introduced a new way of thinking, which we refer to as the Socratic method. Following his death, various branches of philosophy sprang from his absence. Prior to him, the main questions that philosophy dealt with were things like metaphysics and epistemology. After Socrates, the branch that we call ethics began to prosper and evolve. “The Apology” is still taught today because it serves as a basis for one to start to understand themselves as well as highlighting the need to question one’s
He wanted people to work in a well-balanced environment to make world an exceptional place to live. Plato and Aristotle both established their theories mainly on knowledge. Plato was the pioneer of the written conversation and combative forms in philosophy, which emerge with him. He proposed that the soul of every creature is confined in his body. Basically soul bears the knowledge since birth but it comes out with due course.
Plato’s father died when he was a young boy and his mother got married to Pyrilampes, who was a friend of the great Athenian statesman Pericles. So from childhood itself Plato was very much into Athenian politics and was expected to enter it himself. Known for his good looks and charm, Plato was an excellent student who mastered in fields like music, poetry, math and rhetoric. He was rewarded for his bravery after he fought and won 3 wars. He never got
Aristotle was born in 384 BCE in the small town of Stagira on the northeast Coast of Thrace His father was physician to the king of Macedonia. It could be that Aristotle’s great interest in biology and science in general was nurtured in his early childhood. When he was 17 years old, Aristotle moves to Athens to enrol in Plato’s Academy, where he spent the next twenty years as a student and member. There he became the “reader” and “the mind of the school.” He was influenced by Plato’s thought and personality. But then, eventually he broke away from Plato’s philosophy in order to formulate his own idea of some philosophical problems.
Plato wrote a lot of important philosophical works during his lifetime, but some of the most important ones are his works involving Socrates. With these works, Plato touched upon important beliefs that seem clear-cut to us but are much more complicated than believed. One of these beliefs involves the meaning and importance of knowledge. Plato writes to describe knowledge in his works Protagoras, Euthydemus, and Meno. There are three points he brings up involving proper knowledge: the importance of good teaching, the necessity of knowledge to do good in the world, and how virtue is a type of knowledge.