In 1860 15 states had a population of 12 million, and of that one-third were slaves, and 2% were free African Americans. One in particular was once a former slave who eventually became free and educated and sought out to speak on the injustice of slavery. As Frederick Douglas spoke of his injustice in being sold as a slave and all he endured one can only imagine. In his speeches and writings he highlighted the torture slaves endured. What was once spoken to American citizens was slaves did not know how to function as regular citizens, but here Frederick Douglas proved different.
The Fugitive Slave Act was passed by the House of Representatives on February 4, 1793 by a vote of 48–7 with 14 abstaining. Eight days later, the Act was approved by Congress. Although the Article four of the U.S. Constitution granted the slave masters the rights to recapture slaves who fled to free states, “the Fugitive Slave Law included new and harsher provisions mandating the participation of northern states and individuals in the recapture process and curtailing the rights of alleged fugitives to prove they were not runaways” (Kazin 492). Many, either white or black, reacted to this Act, especially in the North. Some states even passed personal-liberty laws to allow fugitive slaves to appeal their case in a court.
The Fugitive Slave Laws allowed for slave owners to capture their runaway slave if they were within the United States territory (Fugitive Slave Acts). They started in 1793 and anyone who was caught aiding a slave escape was also punished. In 1850 another slave law was passed to allow for harsher punishment on runaways. By 1864 both of the laws were revoked by Congress.
Randall states “He believed that all men and women had been created equal and he considered blacks as MEN--he had capitalized the word in the clause in the Declaration of Independence that had been stricken by the Second Continental Congress” (592). Jefferson’s slave clause was only defeated by one vote, and according to Allison he wanted slaves gone by 1800 (114). Aaron Schwabach who wrote “Thomas Jefferson, Slavery, Slaves.” said that by January 1, 1808 all states with except for South Carolina, slaves became illegal. Jefferson did not take the changes well, he became disappointed by the slavery part getting turned down (277). Jefferson also states that it is the King’s fault for the slave trade going on for seven years, he is the one who started it, he blames him (Randall 212).
Slavery became a key issue in the arguments of the north and the south. The south was very agricultural while the north was industrial. The south feared the declaration of freedom for the slaves by government leaders in the north. Government officials at the time were not interested in ending Slavery in the slave states, but instead in keeping newly admitted states from becoming slave states. The first official disagreement of this came in 1820.
He gave a similar deal to ex rebels like that of lincoln, which pardoned most but not all rebels. To recently deceased lincoln 's benefit, Johnson recognized the state governments created by Lincoln but set out his own requirements for restoring the other rebel states “all that the citizens of a state had to do was to renounce the right of succession, deny that the debts of the Confederacy were legal and binding, and ratify the Thirteenth Amendment abolishing slavery, which became part of the Constitution in December 1865” (Roark 407). Additionally, Johnson also returned all confiscated and abandoned land to pardoned ex Confederates, even if the land was in the hands of a freedmen. All this happened while Congress was out of session, so nothing was done about this “leniency that had acted as a midwife to the rebirth of the Old South” (Roark 406).
On July 9, 1868, the Fourteenth Amendment was ratified to the Constitution. The Fourteenth Amendment was created to grant citizenship to “all persons born or naturalized in the United States,” which included the freeing of former slaves after the Civil War in 1865. It gave the former slaves their natural rights as citizens to the United States after the Dred Scott case, where they declared that black slaves were not people. Moreover, in Southern states the majority of them rejected this because they still wanted to keep their slaves, but later was required to be ratified by the three-fourths of the states. This is also known as the “Reconstruction Amendment,” meaning to forbid any states to deny any person of “life, liberty, or property without
It also was the first of several laws passed during the last thirty years of the seventeenth century that reduced the personal rights of black men and women.]WHEREAS the only law in force for the punishment of refractory servants resisting their master, mistris or overseer cannot be inflicted upon negroes, nor the obstinacy of many of them by other then violent meanes supprest, Be it enacted and declared by this grand assembly, if any slave resist his master (or other by his masters order correcting him) and by the extremity of the correction should chance to die, that his death shall not be accompted felony, but the master (or that other person appointed
The purpose of the Underground Railroad was to free slaves from the ownership of slave owners, and did just that. Over 100,000 thousand slaves were freed from slave owners, and they managed to live their own lives. While slaves escaping did bring about anti-black sentiment from the Southern States most clearly seen in the Fugitive Slave Act, it brought support for abolition because white people could see that all the slaves were just as human as the rest of them. This may not have changed their beliefs of inferiority, but it did change their beliefs that African Americans deserved such cruel treatment. After the awareness of the slaves’ capabilities and the living in communities with slaves, white people in the North that still supported slavery changed their stance after seeing first hand that black people, not just the few free blacks, were similar to everyone else.
The first compromise was in 1820 call the Missouri Compromise. The debate was where slavery would be allowed to take place. The Northwest Ordinance was the Northwest territory created beyond the Appalachian Mountains, this action was a responds to many differ things such as war. Then the compromise was that Missouri enter as a slave stated and Maine enter as a free state and the line of 36' 30" is the line that separates slavery everything above it is free and everything below it was a slave state. The Missouri compromise was effective for almost thirty years until similar problems arose and the compromise became less and less effective.
In the North, blacks and whites were starting to work together. Blacks were still restricted and did not have the same rights as a white man but slavery was not accepted. Blacks could not go where ever they pleased, blacks could not apply for any job and blacks could not vote. The North began to build manufactures
The case that changed it all came in 1857 as in the North people were also angered over the Dred Scott decision as it only widened the political and social gap between the North and South and took the nation only closer to a civil war. Dred Scott was a slave that was taken to a free slave state with his master and lived on the land for a long time to be only returned to Missouri, which was a slave state but his master passed away and Dred Scott decided to sue for his freedom by the help of abolitionist lawyers. Dred Scott claimed he should be free since he had lived on free soil for many years. In 1857, Dred Scott lost due to decision by seven out of nine of Justices on the Supreme Court voted he must be a citizen, so as a non-citizen he could not sue in a federal court and must go back to being a slave. Howard on page 33 states perfectly what this decision was truly meant by stating, “As relates to these States, it is too plain for argument, that they have never been regarded as a part of the people or citizens of the State, nor supposed to possess any political rights which the dominant race might not withhold or grant at their pleasure.”
The convention will encourage Charleston to draft a law of secession. They will announce that the Ordinance of Secession will be enforced on December 20. Soon after, South Carolina will become the first slave state in the south to declare that it had seceded from the United States. However, the northern regions seems to believe that our declaration of secession was a result of the refusal of free states to enforce the Fugitive Slave Acts. After realizing this act in the Declaration, we realized that the United States Constitution failed to establish each State as an equal in the Union, with separate control over its own institutions, such as the right of property in slaves.
Also, they had to ratify the thirteenth amendment and no former confederate could run for federal office. The southern states were readmitted into the Union. Because they couldn’t run for federal office, they ran for state office instead, which lead to the creation of Black Codes in the southern
Although Lincoln was elected by the Republican Party, Lincoln wanted to maintain involvement in the union throughout his presidency. In spite of his opponent Stephen Douglas strong follow, he was negated support due to his betraying history and states separated. Leading up to the secession from the union, where the confederate states of America were established by slave state such as Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, South Carolina and Mississippi. However, Lincoln’s incoming was refused by the people due to the legitimacy of secession. In March 4th, 1861, Lincoln was inaugurated, triggering the secession of the Battle of Fort Sumter in South Carolina.