Whistleblowing Literature Review

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2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW The review of literature of this study broadly focused on whistleblowing. There have been several attempts to define whistleblowing, but certainly there is no generally accepted definition. According to Near and Miceli (1985), which are often referred by researchers, whistleblowing is a process whereby a current or former member of an organization discloses practices or activities believe to be illegal, immoral or illegitimate, to those who may be able to effect change. The practices or activities can be refer to personal misbehavior such as stealing, waste, mismanagement, safety problems, sexual harassment, unfair discrimination and legal violations (Dasgupta & Kesharwani, 2010). With regards to whistleblowing, the act…show more content…
Whistleblower also worried as they normally viewed themselves as “blackballed” where they may be facing difficulty to engage new employment. “Whistleblowers have a strong sense of injustice” as cited by Fincher (2009). Despite the benefits, the act of exposing wrongdoing within an organization is no easy task, and whistleblowers are often exposed to negative consequences, such as demotion, dismissal, and blacklisting (Cassematis & Wortley, 2013; Chang et al.,…show more content…
According to Dasgupta & Kesharwani (2010) that there are several types of common retaliation such as spotlight the whistleblower where the employers will try to attack the source rather than to address the wrongdoing, manufacture a poor record where the employees may be given poor evaluation from the supervisor, employer threaten employee to keep silent with termination of service, employer isolate or humiliate the employees, Set employees up for failure with burdened with additional responsibilities, employer prosecute the employees with fault information and employer eliminate the employee jobs by not granting them any promotion opportunity. These have prevented the employee refusal to engage with the whistleblowing for unlawful conduct in their organization. Expected reporting costs often involve prospective retaliationbased on earlier research. Arnold and Ponemon (1991) reported that threatened retaliation lessens the likelihood of reporting. This means that employee may not be willing to report wrongdoing as they might afraid of the retaliation against them. A system which allows anonymous reporting would reduce expected costs since anonymity is associated with increased reporting frequency (Miceli & Near, 1992). “As the rank of the manager committing the wrongdoing increases, the expected reporting costs increase and

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