TYPES OF WHITE COLLAR CRIME:- According to Herbert Edelhertz white collar are of four types on the basis of motivation of the perpetrator. They are:- 1. Individual basis crime like as income tax evasion, bankruptcy fraud, credit purchase or taking loans with no intention to pay and insurance fraud. 2. In the course of employment.
Time of Interview: January 10th 2016, 12:00 P.M – 1.00 P.M 1. Could you please explain the causes of white collar crimes in our country? White-collar crimes are the crimes committed by individual with high social status in the course of his occupation. It is a nonviolent crime which normally involves documentation like contract and agreement. For example, crimes like breach of trust, forgery, fraud and security commission are consider as white-collar crimes, as it involves highly educated person or person with high social status to commit such crimes.
The slogan “white collar crime” was made up in 1939 by Edwin Sutherland during a dialog which he gave to the American Sociological Society. Sutherland described the term as “crime committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation”
As explained by Heath (2008), all five techniques of neutralization are used justifying corporate crime. For example, due to the organizational hierarchy in corporations, and the extent to which how many people are involved, it is easy for individuals to point fingers at one another, thus denying responsibility (Heath, 2008). Another important aspect of corporate crime is the denial of injury. Many of the people involved in this type of crime participate because there is often a “faceless” character (Heath, 2008, 606). This suggests that when the victim is unknown or there is no interaction with the actual corporation, the attitudes towards committing the crime is more positive (Heath, 2008).
79-88. Nclive, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10892-010-9098-3. Jesper Ryberg, a professor in the Department of Philosophy and Science Studies at the University of Roskilde, Denmark, questions the use of racial profiling as a way of reducing crime. He also examines the ethics of the criminal justice system in its degree or levels of punishment for certain crimes. His first contention is that when racial profiling is used by law enforcement as a means of reducing crime, there will be a disproportionate number of that ethnic group charged and punished for crimes.
It is up to the SEC and regulatory agencies to find these crimes and hidden corporate agendas to ensure WCC cannot be perpetrated. It would be hard to discern who a typical criminal would be anyway. The concrete data of studying White-collar crime only began in the early 1960’s. The assumption that one on one crime is more harmful is astronomical. WCC is more harmful both physically and financially than common crime anyway you examine it.
Its victims are usually a large group, faceless who feel they are stigmatized or seldom know they are being victimized. Thus, causing challenges and giving way to how the public perceives white collar crime. Unlike traditional crimes, white collar crime is not dependent upon the application or threat of physical force or violence which keeps
Crime is a conduct that is prohibited by law and must have a severe sanction that is directed at a public purpose. White-collar and corporate crime is a type of crime that is committed by middle and upper class people about their business activities. Sutherland defined white-collar crime as a crime committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation (textbook). Rational choice theory is the result of cautious choices made by offenders based on their intentions of the risks and rewards of these choices. Criminals make rational decisions to commit a crime by reviewing all possibilities and outcomes (idealessay).
First, there must be a clear understanding of the terminology racial profiling. Racial profiling is defined as a form of discrimination by which law enforcement uses a person’s race or cultural background as the primary reason to suspect that the individual has broken the law (Nittle). Secondly, there are innocent people being affected daily. In Mr. Christian’s case, after enduring much humiliation, he was awarded $45,000 in January 2016 (Bekiempis). It has been noted on court records that this high end retail store had paid out $525,000 in racial profiling claims (Bekiempis).
The law is a cobweb; it’s made for flies and the smaller kinds of insects, so to speak, but lets the big bumblebees break through by using technicalities. Corporate wrongs or white collar crimes until recently was understood as the crime of persons of high respectability committed during the course of carrying out their legitimate duties. The above statements resonate the general perception and the enforcement of the law in respect of corporate wrongs by the majority of the society especially the middle and lower class. However, the events of the early 2000s heralded a change in perception and stirred public awareness to the harm caused by white collar crimes. The financial scandals in the United States between the year 2000 – 2002; the Irish banking crisis of 2008 that led to the collapse of