Introduction Traditionally criminological theory and criminal justice practices have been focused on the criminal in an effort to reduce crime. The United States had over nine million crimes reported to law enforcement in 2016 (FBI, 2017). Such a large number of crimes lend to the notion that there must be many similarities in offenders and comparable incidents suitable for analysis that fall within accepted criminological theories to provide predictable concepts that could be utilized to reduce crime. This simply is not true. Crime and its causes are complex due to a number of various factors that may motivate offenders and furnish suitable opportunities.
The topic is debated whether or not the Capital Punishment should be legal. The government is already involved in the lives of those who commit crimes, but the idea of it taking away someone’s life creates an uneasy thought. Some people believe that execution is wrong, inhumane and should be abolished while others believe that it projects positive impacts and
CHOICES “White collar crime” refers to those offenses that are anticipated to generate fiscal gain using some form of dishonesty. This type of crime is usually committed by people in the commercial world who, as a result of their employment position, are able to get a hold of large amounts of other people’s money. “White collar crime” does not involve forceful, drug-related, or blatantly illicit activities. In fact, perpetrators are typically involved in otherwise lawful industries and may hold respectable positions in the community prior to the discovery of their fraudulent schemes. The slogan “white collar crime” was made up in 1939 by Edwin Sutherland during a dialog which he gave to the American Sociological Society.
There are flaws in every tool used to define and measure crime because it is impossible to know actual amount of crime that takes place. The Uniform Crime Report relies on the reports of local law enforcement agencies but some surveys suggest that less than half of all criminal incidents are reported to the police. Many people fail to report crimes that they believe are insignificant while others fail to report crimes because victims are unaware that they are a victim and mistrust police. The Uniform Crime Report also relies on voluntary participants. Criminal statistics are lost when law enforcement agencies do not voluntarily participate.
In the United States there are a large number of people incarcerated for a variety of offenses. This does not come cheap for the American taxpayer. American taxpayers pay for all of those incarcerated in the US. The sheer amount of imprisoned can lead to a hefty bill. This leads citizens to think about how to cut costs.
First, the ongoing disputes about outlining and categorizing white collar crime muddles the process. White collar crime is often more complicated verse traditional crime. It almost always involves some form of trust. Second, a greater amount of white collar crime is not reported or officially identified compared to traditional crime, and the costs of unreported crime are more difficult to measure. Its victims are usually a large group, faceless who feel they are stigmatized or seldom know they are being victimized.
One case that we all know of, Enron, not only wiped out lifesavings, but cost investors billions of dollars. White collar crime requires intelligence and lots of
Eyewitness identifications can ruin the lives of innocent people and cause them to live their life behind bars for a crime they didn’t commit. Eye witness testimonies can be the deciding factor for a criminal trial, but the the reliability of the eye witness testimonies is not always as accurate as we assume. Although eyewitness identifications can be very beneficial in solving a case, there have been countless instances where the eyewitness identification has been incorrect due to multiple psychological factors. Memory is the most important aspect to eyewitness identifications because it is the sole tool for remembering details of a specific event, but memory is very complex and has many different aspects that can cause for unreliable
The plea bargain is a major problem facing courts today because innocent people are ending up behind bars. It is the defendants right to be able to plea bargain, but it is not always in their best interest to do so. Many defendants feel forced to plea bargain because they either feel as though their case has no chance against a jury or the public defender has little time to spend on their case. The defendant 's plea bargain to receive a lesser sentence, even if they are innocent. The other aspect of plea bargaining that poses a problem is guilty defendants receive a lesser sentence for the crime they committed.
As a result of public shaming being a more effective punishment, criminals are less likely to repeat the offense. Public shaming could result in a criminal to have a traumatic experience. Unlike other forms of punishment, public shaming allows for a criminal to truly feel what they did was wrong and it “can be a strong motivator for good behavior” (Diana Kwon). A criminal could be sentenced to 4-8 years of jail time and remain unchanged, but with public shaming the criminal receives publicity that is “so unpleasant that it qualifies as punishment” (Greg Beato). Because of this, Some people would argue that with public shaming a punishment is extended beyond the sentence.
There are a significant number of people tried for crimes that they did not commit based off of another’s repressed memory. Elizabeth Loftus made it her goal to find justice for those wrongfully accused. It is hard to say whether or not those accused are truly innocent or not, but what we can say is that too many people are being locked away without all the right evidence; just another’s memory of what might have happened. Loftus found it unlikely that any one person could forget such a traumatic experience, than remember is years later. Plenty of cases have these memory based convictions has their primary source of evidence, however, a repressed memory should not be a legit piece of evidence when attempting to convict another.
With that being said there is always crime. The people involved in the crime are not always caught. When there not they can use the Patriot Act to investigate and catch the perpetrator. Instead of waiting 50 years to find someone they can just look up records of a person and apprehend the
Though drug trafficking may be a huge part of some countries’ economies, it is a problem that continues to grow and cause problems for other countries. It benefits terrorist groups, causes high amount of deaths every year, and causes many people to be thrown in jail. It affects individuals because those who use the illegal substances have a chance of dying and those
On the other hand, if the person being convicted has a lower income and has to receive their attorney from the court there is a high chance of losing the case. John Gross of the National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers stated, “Many of us don 't consider them to be realistic if you expect quality representation” (qtd. in Bromnell 2013). This demonstrates that if someone who is convicted cannot afford a lawyer than they have a very likely chance of losing the case. This is discriminatory toward the lower wage income population.
The reliability of official statistics, especially through documents based on police data, can be hindered by a number of limitations. As police data is one of the main sources of data looked at when studying statistics, the limitations revolve around the reporting and recording of the crimes. There are instances in which the official crime statistics do not reflect the precise crime rates. (Ross, 1999) Misrepresentation can be caused by a number of different factors. For starters, the victim has to recognise and report the crime to to police, however, in some instances may not due to not realising they’ve witnessed a criminal act, their involvement or relationship to those involved, or their uncertainty that the situation will be resolved by the police.