Professor Khalil Girban Muhammad gave an understanding of the separate and combined influences that African Americans and Whites had in making of present day urban America. Muhammad’s lecture was awakening, informative and true, he was extremely objective and analytical in his ability to scan back and forth across the broad array of positive and negative influences. Muhammad described all the many factors during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries since the abolition of slavery and also gave many examples of how blackness was condemned in American society in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Professor Muhammad was able to display how on one hand, initial limitations made blacks seem inferior, and various forms of white prejudice made things worse. But on the other hand, when given the same education and opportunities, there are no differences between black and white achievements and positive contributions to society.
After all of these drama in the south, a lot of African Americans decided it was time to move on to the North. When they move to the North it did not stop them from the “racial prejudice” however they were free to apply for lower jobs . Because of the shortage in the job market during World War 1 in 1917 the white laborers had to also compete with the blacks. With the competing of employment and housing it brought “racial violence” in East St. Louis . Chicago faced a white race riot in the year of 1919 where Irish and Polish laborers were killing men in black hoods
The worldwide economic downturn known as The Great Depression took the world by storm. It was during this dilemma that every group of americans were immensely affected. None were affected as much as African Americans and racial status. It was this depression that made the already problematic lives of the African Americans even more challenging. Factors which which influenced racial issues against blacks in the early 1920’s through 1930’s were the Second Ku Klux Klan, Jim Crow Laws, the fight for jobs, and the racial riots/lynchings that followed.
The expansions of bedroom-communities also materialized to accommodate the large volume of new Americans that was being produced. After the World War II numerous individuals purchased land on the outskirts of urban-cities and use the advancement of technology to create inexpensive houses that was attractive to the baby-boomers. To further accommodate the audience the G.I. Bill of the returning soldiers & their families made housing in the suburbs even cheaper. In a way it was a win-win for man and country. It wasn’t all peaches & roses in the late 1950s for minorities.
Lance Freeman, an associate professor of urban planning in Columbia, wanted to investigate if there was any displacement going on in two predominantly black neighborhoods that was briskly gentrifying. Much to his dismay, he couldn’t find any correlation between gentrification and displacement. What was surprising to Freeman was his discovery, “poor residents and those without a college education were actually less likely to move if they resided in gentrifying neighborhoods”. (Sternbergh, 19) Freeman adds, “The discourse on gentrification, has tended to overlook the possibility that some of the neighborhood changes associated with gentrification might be appreciated by the prior residents.” (Sternbergh, 19)
The contemporary distinctive patterns of segregation and poverty in the United States often relate back to the issue of race. Scholars have looked at the institutional forces that shape differential life outcomes of American racial minorities, particularly African Americans, to explain such patterns. Massey and Denton explore racial residential segregation in the United States throughout the 20th century. They argue that the making and concentration of the (African American) underclass in inner cities resulted from institutional and interpersonal racism in the housing market that perpetuates already existing racial segregation. Amanda Lewis and colleagues adds more insight to Massey and Denton’s investigation with their comprehensive overview
After recent protests in Baltimore, Badger (2016) explores the nature of policies set in the early 1900’s that have shaped the city of Baltimore, and that continue to have an effect on their quality of life. Actions such as redlining and urban renewal have perpetuated poverty and segregation in the same neighborhoods today as 75 year ago. This article calls attention to the effect of system-wide race discrimination in Baltimore, and how policies create a cyclical link between race and disadvantage in communities. Racial disparities across many subsystems have created a system of race discrimination in which it’s emergent effects implant uber discrimination into our culture and institutions (Reskin, 2012). Reskin (2012) explains how emergent discrimination intensifies disparities within each subsystem and creates systems of race discrimination.
For decades, the boundary was strictly policed and practically impermeable. In 1970 April Miller’s hometown was 97 percent white. By 1990 San Leandro was 65 percent white, 6 percent black, 15 percent Hispanic, and 13 percent Asian or Pacific Islander. With minorities moving into suburbs in growing numbers and cities becoming even more diverse, the boundary between city and suburb is dissolving, and suburban teenagers are changing with the times”(691).
Grace Vaughn Mrs. Gumina English III Hour 1 4 April 2016 Title “Overall, the percentage of black residents in Kansas City — which rose from 17.5 percent in 1960 to 31 percent in 2000 — has now dropped to 29 percent” (As Whites Flock to Kansas City, Blacks Pick the Suburbs 1). Segregation in Kansas City has been a problem for decades. One of the biggest problems in the 1940’s-1960’s is segregation in neighborhoods. This is one of the biggest concerns because it concerns where people eat, go to school, go to work, and many other aspects of their lives.
Back in the 1970s American Society’s wealth was concentrated in white families. The gain of social rights that blacks, women, and gays and lesbians received during the 60s threatened the conservative values that whites had; therefore, during this decade, the United States suffered what is called the White flight: white American people immigrated to the suburbs to maintain the values of an unified family, opposition to abortion, capitalism, and private investments that they had, leaving a desolate, hostile city landscape. The urban decay peaked in the United States when New York City, Boston, Chicago, Minneapolis, and Atlanta lost more than 10% of their population as stated by Jordan Rappaport in his article U.S. Urban Decline and Growth, 1950 to 2000. With whites’ money and values leaving, the
“A racist system inevitably destroys and damages human beings; it brutalizes and dehumanizes them, blacks and whites alike” (Kenneth Clark). Kenneth Clark was a very important person in helping the Brown V. Board Of Education case win. Winning that case was important because a state law came into place that said separate public schools for black and white students were unconstitutional. A Raisin in the Sun shows how Clark was right; a racist system affected the way the Youngers’ lived. The Youngers’ apartment in the Southside of Chicago: in the 1950s; significantly affected the Youngers’ lives.
Internalized Racism is the The Taye Diggs interview, Nella Larsen’s “Passing”, Sojourner Truth, and the racial scenarios video all display at least one of the five themes that are listed and all tie into each other in some aspect. Each New York during the 1920’s and the 1930’s better known as The Harlem Renaissance passing served as a In gateway for African American writers. Although these writers wrote about different issues their concepts were the same on certain topics such as: assimilation, colorism, passing, racism, and segregation. interview, scenario, novel, and biography. of these will be discussed and this paper will show the similarities of the themes in each main theme in the Taye Diggs interview; the topic of self-hate and colorism are being discussed.
During this period, the amount of middle classmen increased tremendously. Countless citizens migrated northward to big cities, this action was known as the “white flight” (doc A). Americans later painted a picture of a “nuclear family”, which means each household would contain
The new development in progression today shows the idea of how marketable land around the city is and how diverse neighborhoods cause for better funding and better relationships between people of different ethnicities and cultures. Even though the Chicago Race Riots was a negative event, over the years its effects became positive. As a result of all the looting and burning down businesses, it gave the developers a chance to integrate new business ideas and housing plans to help advance the community in the future. This is one of the major historical events used today as a lesson taught to students to eliminate