The total collapse of “The American Dream” in Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf? Edward Albee, an American playwright is known to have brought Absurdist Theater on American stage. He interrogated the notion of American dream in his plays to demonstrate its flaws and further questions its core ideas which is to pursuit a life of happiness. “American dream (is) that dream of a land in which life should be better and richer and fuller for every man, with opportunity for each according to his ability or achievement”. In this play he penetrates behind the mask of the dream and exposes the pain born out of sterility, unrealized dreams and unfulfilled ambitions.
Tone is a very powerful and moving tool for both Heller and Hemingway in their novels. In Catch-22, comedy through absurdity is the overwhelming tone. Heller uses the comedic tone to explain that “[w]ar is irrational”, and leave the reader with a “catharsis in which the grimness of war provides the dominant memory”. Heller does so by creating absurd situations that may begin as funny, however leave one with a “bitter pessimism” (Hasley). An example of this is the tale of Captain Half-Oat, whose family had been Native Americans who, whenever they settled, would happen to settle directly over an oil deposit and be evicted by oil companies.
Even though Huxley could not predict the future, themes of Brave New World became clearly prevalent in our society after his popular work came to light. His foreboding intuition about the presence of powerful central governments, conditioning of human beings, and attempts of mind control were all too real. Consequently, Huxley’s work foreshadowed the societal issues experienced in the mid-twentieth century and could have been used to identify the ominous circumstances, in order to prevent their occurrence. Brave New World perfect example of issues that arise with the advancement of
Dangerous Liaisons is an American-British film, directed by Stephen Frears, released in 1988. It is adapted from Christopher Hampton's play, itself adapted from Pierre Choderlos de Laclos's famous epistolary novel Les Liaisons Dangereuses. He has won three Oscars, including Christopher Hampton's Best Adaptation Screenplay. The film and the play change the original ending of the novel, in which Madame de Merteuil remains alone forever disfigured by her illness. In scene 43, the Marquise de Merteuil, jealous of Valmont's love of Tourvel, tells him the story of a man who, for fear of ridicule, had left his mistress, by saying: "It's not my fault."
“Fun and games” constitute the central issue of Edward Albee’s play Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf? They are important both form the thematic and the structural point of view. Through the games Albee attacks American society’s most cherished assumptions “that the marriage bond is a source of communion, that the business failure is a weakling, that fertility is a blessing…”1 In fact the play is a satiric indictment of American manners and mores and the cultural assumptions that shape them. According to Albee the essential problem that is covered over by manners and mores is the break-down of real communion between individuals. The protagonist of The Zoo Story (1958) says: “We neither love nor hurt because we do not try to reach each other.” George and Martha’s difficulties arise from this problem of lack of real contact.
Kaiser particularly focused on the suffering of World War 1. Once again the great influence of the events of the time coming to the fore in terms of deeply affecting playwrights such as Kaiser, and ultimately, questioning the foundation of society which had this ability to cause such destruction. Plays such as Our Town written by famous American playwright Thornton Wilder explores this spiritual and universal truth by breaking through the realism barrier. It tells the story of the everyday lives of ordinary citizens who live in The Governors Corners, which is a fictional town, between 1901 and 1913. The use of a bare stage and only a few props aims at creating elements of expressionism and symbolism.
Both his parents had also passed away by now and this only resulted in him becoming stronger and producing works of greater quality on the stage. In 1936, he became the first American playwright to receive the Nobel Prize in literature for, ''the power, honesty and deep-felt emotions of his dramatic works, which embody an original concept of tragedy." He soon suffered from another personal tragedy when he had a falling out with his daughter Oona and ended their relationship after she decided to marry actor Charlie Chaplin. After a notable absence from the dramatic world and the stage, O'Neill returned to the theatre with one of his most celebrated plays, The Iceman Cometh. In 1953, at the age of 65, Eugene O'Neill passed away due to bronchial pneumonia.
Kushner had made the reenactment more opinionated than Brecht would have liked. Brecht believed that it was the audience’s right to observe a historical sequence of events and come up with personal conclusions. His play contained merely facts not moral judgments (Gorshein). The essence of “Mother Courage and Her Children” was messages of social, economic and political injustice. Both Kushner and Walter brought these messages to light in “Theater of War” as well (Theater of War).
Asif Ali Ruperdra Guha Majumdar, Associate Professor, DU IA Term Paper Semester - IV 19th April 2016 Tragedy of a common man in Mother Courage and Her Children: From the spectacle of Realism In the essay "Tragedy and the Common Man," the author Arthur Miller puts forward a very strong argument in the favor of a common man’s suitability for being the hero of a tragedy. And this argument was based on some common points like, such plays can influence us greatly for they contain various elements like the fear of displacement, the tragedy of the difference between who we are and who we wish to be in this world. “Among us today this fear is strong, and perhaps stronger, than it ever was. In fact, it is the common man who knows this fears the best.” According to Miller a common layman is well aware of fear and understands it well hence qualifies for the tragedy. A man’s quest for morality which is moreover a subjective matter, the point of concern over here is the extent to which he would go to reach that point of morality.
Macbeth, originally titled as The Tragedy of Macbeth is a tragic play written by William Shakespeare in 1606. The story is loosely based on the history of England, Scotland and Ireland even though it has been largely distorted and exaggerated for entertainment purposes. Shakespeare’s Macbeth confronts the issue of personal and political power lusting, and the harmful influence it brings on, both physically and psychologically. Shakespeare tells us the story of how lust for power pollutes one’s mind just as it did for Macbeth and changed him from a valiant hero to a tyrannical villain. All of Shakespeare’s tragedies mainly focus on the diversity of humankind’s mind, the ever-prominent traits of human beings – sensuality and affection – the emergence and the development of emotion along with their power to destroy and create things on a much larger scale.