ABSTRACT The term, ‘children with disabilities’ refers to children up to the age of 18 who have ‘long-term physical, mental, intellectual, or sensory impairments which in interaction with various barriers may hinder their full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others.’ Such children are often marginalized and experience widespread violations of their rights. The exclusion of these children from the mainstream society makes them even more vulnerable and hence unable to enjoy a life of dignity and individuality. Factors like poverty; isolation; lack of support and infrastructural facilities further vitiate the conditions of these children. Broadly the disabilities that can affect chil-dren can be classified into physical and learning disabilities and both of these need to addressed dif-ferently.
I believe CYCs can help facilitate this transition. A CYC can help by identifying and providing a suitably in-depth assessment of individual children and adolescents, as well as, designing, implementing and evaluating interventions to assist students (and families if necessary) in dealing with specific school-related issues. In addition to this, we can help by developing programs in response to student request or assessed need with both "normal" and "special needs" students in order to promote the integration of special needs and normal
Physical impairments would include disabilities such as Cerebral Palsy or Spina Bifida in the child or adult. In this case, it may be hard for them to speak to communicate what they are trying to say. They may also have trouble using their gross and fine motor skills which could prevent a child from producing school work to a similar level of a child without any physical
It will depend on the type of disability that the child has. They may have a hearing or seeing impairment or a physical or learning disability. Children or young people may be subjected to prejudice or discrimination which could lead to them being bullied or treated differently, this in turn could affect their learning skills, self confidence and development. In the past the medical model of disability meant that opportunities for learning and development where few and far between. Today there is a different approach to disabilities and most settings look at different ways in which they can help with learning and development and to give children as many opportunities as possible.
Explain the relationship between disability and special educational needs. Explain the nature of the particular disabilities and/or special educational needs of children and young people with whom they work. Explain the special provision required by children and young people with whom they work. Explain the expected pattern of development for disabled children and young people and those with special educational needs with whom they work People often confuse Disability for Special Educational needs and the Special Educational needs for a Disability. This is not the case, although there can be an overlap between the two they are not the same thing.
Vygotsk’s idea of scaffolding falls within the zone of proximal development. Scaffolding involves temporarily aiding a child in certain tasks until they are capable of completing them on their own. A method of scaffolding explained a certain task to a child that may be more logical to them. This would make it easier for the child to know why they are completing a task and how to properly complete it on their
o Hearing impairment: Hearing is a critical part of language development, communication and learning. If hearing loss occurs from birth then it is more serious, but if identified early enough and detected early enough it isn’t quite as serious. So how does hearing impairment affect development? It delays development of receptive and expressive communication skills; it causes learning problems that result in reduced academic achievement; communication problems can lead to being socially isolated or having poor self-esteem, self-worth, or have an impact on vocational
As each child, young adult and adult with any of these disorders will be individual and unique; the barriers affecting communication will be different for each person you meet. A child, young person or adult with these physical disabilities may have delayed communication skills especially with the more severe disabilities like Cerebral Palsy and Downs syndrome which can severely affect them in different areas of development such as gross motor skills, fine motor skills, self care and communication. All of these need to be addressed with a kind, patient and understanding nature from the teaching assistant. Adults with severe physical disabilities may have difficulties communicating and accessing the school. Adults may have trouble interacting in social settings, may feel stigmatised or feel they are not accepted or understood.
Parents, professionals and practitioners need to pay attention not only to what children say, but also what they are saying. They also need to pay attention to behaviours, listening to the child and building a trusting relationship. It is key that children are involved
Appropriate social and emotional skills help children develop the skills they need for cooperation, following directions, self-control and paying attention. These skills are innate, however in the school setting have become a part of everyday learning. Especially since social and emotional competencies are critical for children 's success, in school as well as in other settings, and later phases of life into adulthood. (Darling, 2016, p. 3). Developing social-emotional skills in children help them persist on challenging tasks, and effectively seek help when they need it along with exhibiting thoughtfulness in their actions.
Speech, language and communication can be supported through play and activities in a number of different ways, children/young people need the opportunity to express themselves using language. It is important to help them develop language skills and to help them use language effectively. It is essential to listen to what is being said and respond appropriately. It is important to be aware of any additional needs, and if English is a second language. You need to consider using a language they can understand.
• What are the strengths of this assessment tool? This assessment allows for a more individualized approach to planning for specific children, while providing support to all. Using observation and anecdotal assessments provides multiple opportunities to view children learning and provides a more realistic view of their learning than an assessment, which only allows for right or wrong answers. • What are the weaknesses of this assessment tool? It is critical that observations be free of bias and objective, a skill that needs to be developed and can be a challenge for some teachers.
Four key good working practices that help protect the child and the adult working with them are; working in an open and transparent way, listening to children and young people, propriety and behaviour, and power and positions of trust. Working in an open and transparent way is important as it means that a practitioner is not left totally alone and out of view with a child. The layout and set-up of a room or building can contribute to this. It is important to talk about different ways of working to ensure all staff are working in the most appropriate way. Listening to children and young people means that practitioner could learn a lot about the child or young person and may hear things of concern.
It is believed that children with reactive attachment disorder have the ability to form secure attachments, but this capacity has been compromised by their experiences early in life. The symptoms of reactive attachment disorder can create some problems regarding education, impacting student progress and performance. One such symptom is the lack of cause and effect thinking. When a child struggles with this cognitive
The treatment goals are mainly to improve the social and communication difficulties of Johnson. Communication is not only referred to as a kind of interaction that is carried out by saying words to each other. It also includes facial expression, body language and voice tone of a person. Many autistic children fail to understand the meaning behind the tone of voice and thus find it hard to communicate. In addition to this, they may also fail to recognize the body gestures (pointing, waving) or facial expressions of a person.