(Scandiffio) This shows that the monarchy was seen as very detrimental to the ideal of liberty, the conviction and execution of the king marked the end of the monarchy which was formerly a vital feature of the Old Regime. The actions taken against the oppression of the monarchy demonstrate that the French Revolution challenged the traditional value of social inequality to a near-full
Both the governments of the French Revolution and the provisional government in France, had neglected to solve one of the most significant problems which was that the people were starving, leading to one of the main reasons for a failure in the government. Both the French and Russian Revolutions had radical wings that got in the way of the original purpose of the Revolution. The Petrograd Soviet’s radical reforms angered the people just as the radical Mountain angered the people. Additionally, the failure of the original revolutions called for one person to stand up and overthrow the preexisting government to establish a new one. In the case of France, Napoleon staged a coup which eventually led to him crowning himself emperor and maybe in even some ways acting as a dictator.
With all this political uncertainty going on the united states had a division of its people, those that supported Britain and those that supported France parties because of all the political uncertainty. The federalist party that was led by alexander Hamilton did not support the revolution and wanted to continue relations with Great Britain. The leader of the French democratic-republican party was Thomas Jefferson that believed
Britain, Austria, and Russia joined forces to prevent the French expansion into the Near East. The third coalition composed of Britain, Austria, and Russia was created in 1805 to stop Napoleon's expansion to in Belgium and to strengthen Prussia. The Continental System created by Napoleon made the European countries resent Napoleon's control thus they buy smuggled goods. To show hate against this system, Russia withdrew from the Continental System. These three coalitions and Russia's reaction to the system emphasized the disagreement of the European nations to the Napoleonic Empire.
Charles then appointed two catholic ministers to the Cabal, this issue was clearly one which could have been avoided had Charles been more shrewd. Charles did little to address the role of parliament and did nothing to solve the problems that had to led to war. The fears of Catholicism were reignited when James II took the throne; he was a political liability from the offset announcing he was a catholic, this lack of political awareness allowed him to be the brunt of suspicion. Consequently he was later removed from the throne as he posed a threat to the Protestant religion and the rule of law. James’ personality alienated the political nation; to such an extent that it was not divided over opinion, but completely rejected him.
In addition, Napoleon showed weakness in his loss against the Spanish during the Peninsula War. His decision to invade Spain backfired when Guerilla Warfare proved Spain’s national strength over France. Moreover, Napoleon’s invasion of Russia in 1812 also backfired. His 450,000 men came unexpectedly face to face with Russia’s Scorched Earth Policy, which burned crops, slaughtered livestock, and destroyed towns. Essentially, it destroyed anything and everything useful to Napoleon’s troops.
In his Reflections on the French Revolution, he blames the philosophes for their abstract ideologies that were incapable of accommodating the complexity of human nature and their rejection of the divinity of the monarchy that was the foundation of the constitution. Although, its influence over the population is debatable prior to 1789, which saw a publication of the thoughts of philosophes. The periods between the 1748 to 1770 clearly laid the base for a forum to critique traditional institutions but it was not till the collapse of political order that these ideals became widespread. taking Lefebvre’s argument that the Enlightenment had been the ideology of the bourgeoisie, and the evidence that sales of the Encyclopédie were particularly high within the upper classes supports this notion that the bourgeoisie, along with the nobility collectively knows as the ‘notables’, felt with conviction that they had become enlightened and must create a liberal state to promote the individual. This argument is further supported as the readership of the philosophes did not extend to the peasants in pre-revolutionary France and the restrictions on publishing determined the influence of the Enlightenment.
Louis XIV had turned France into becoming an extremely hierarchical society with the king at the top and then looking down on everyone else. (Harvey 473). He was really against the ideas that a person could be put into jail simply on the fact that the king wanted him there, without any evidence against them and without any opportunity of a fair trial. Voltaire was also against a government under which people in jail were forced to confess of possible false guilt due to unimaginable torture. (Voltaire 10).
This aspect of military might became the key piece for centralizing power in France, controlling the army meant collecting taxes without the consent of the Estates General, therefore diminishing the power of Estates. This is the reason why the Military Revolution went hand-in-hand with the emergence of absolutism. Hatton describes “the term ‘absolutism’ denotes a form of power which is unrestrained; more specifically it implies that no external agency can suspend or delay the action of the sovereign power” (Hatton, 1976, p.18) Absolutism was also a product of power struggle between the King and the Estates, for example in France the Crown won, establishing monarchical
What led the rise of Napoleon Bonaparte? What is it in regards to Napoleon Bonaparte that makes him the object of such unique criticism? Was his genius, good fortune, and opportunity enough to condemn him, not so much for the purpose of what he did, but what he failed to do? Who else would have sat on the throne in Europe, if Napoleon didn’t? The French Revolution ignites the rise to power of Bonaparte.
The French Revolution brought fighting between Austria and France, until French armies drove back the Austrian invaders, and France was self-declared a republic. Violence in France started the Reign of Terror, during which Hamilton’s federalists spoke of the evil of the revolution, blaming Democratic-Republicans for supporting the outbreak of violence in France. Jefferson and his people disagreed and felt that the price of a few thousand soldiers was a cheap one to pay for freedom. This comes to prove how the French Revolution brought the division between the Federalists and the Democratic-Republicans even further. Another event in this time that would bring a negative impact of american politics would be the War of 1812 which resulted from the Embargo Act.
The colonists were treated very poorly by the English government and they had been denied their rights as Englishmen. The taxation of representation was another main cause for the revolution. When it comes to how they won their independence they had help from France. After the French and Indian War, Britain took the unusual step of taxing the colonists for the cost of the war. Colonists had been taxed before,