Other than these two I guess one of the antibiotic will work quite fine as they have quite unique and powerful way to stop or kill the bacteria, so one way or another one antibiotic will sure to get a good result. Independent variable: Dependent variable: In this experiment we will measure the zone of the inhabited, how much the antibiotic have work on the bacteria?We will measure the area that antibiotic have taken from the bacteria. To measure the area as accurate as possible we will use digital
It is this continuous bacterial layer called for a dental plaque. A plaque is left on the tooth for longer alters gradually its bacterial composition. One older plaque gets proportionally more rod-shaped bacteria compared to a younger. Most of these rod-shaped bacteria secrete toxins during life, known as exotoxins, as part of its metabolic process. But even when the bacteria dies, they will continue to be dangerous when their shell breakage.
1-Introduction Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is resistance of a microorganism to an antimicrobial medicine to which it was previously sensitive. AMR is one of the major problem today as well as in the past which causes the major health problem. AMR occur when antibiotics lost the ability to control the growth of microorganism so that they continue to multiply. Some bacteria are naturally resistant while the other may get this ability of resistance either by the gene mutation (which changes the genetic material of the bacteria) or by acquiring the resistance from other bacterium (by the process of conjugation which transfer the genetic material along with the coding gene resistant to antibiotics). The discovery of the antibiotics was a significant change in the human history as the antibiotics bring change in the field of medicine in many respects and many lives have been saved.
So knowing the structure and function of various types of prokaryotes helps scientists and doctors understand how the cell survives, or more usefully, how it can be killed. From a medical standpoint, characteristics of certain bacteria can help antibacterial medications be developed. This can selectively kill or inhibit growth without harm being done to humans. Also, these distinguishing characteristics from bacteria to bacteria are helpful to scientists in identifying its species. So medically, identification of bacterium on the species level can help in production of medicine (antibacterial medicine) in order to help fight bacteria-causing diseases and illnesses.
However pathogens have mechanisms where it can mask its presence, such that the host would not be able to detect, and release antibodies to destroy the invading pathogens. The only way the host can eliminate pathogens, is by releasing antibodies, to form an antigen- antibody complex and finally be removed via phagocytosis. The masking of its presence in the host could be one of the many effects of evolution. As microbes from the past go through different unfavorable conditions over different periods of time, they undergo mutations often and some of these mutations can cause the microbe to have favorable characteristics that allow them to survive in such harsh conditions and pass on these characteristics to its
This bacteria’s ability to develop resistances is due to mutation and due to the high chance of developing resistances, it often leads to serious infections. The researchers have mentioned that some strains and isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa have integrins that caused it to develop resistances to all reliable antibiotics due to the integrins possessing gene cassettes that encodes both carbapenemases and amikacin acetyltransferases.3 Pseudomonas aeruginosa can develop a virulence factor known as “biofilm”. Biofilm, as the researchers have mentioned, have several stages of development. First is reversible attachment, next is the irreversible attachment, third is first stage of maturation, then the second stage of maturation and finally dispersion. Biofilm cells have been observed to change motility, produce alginates and quorum sensing during the development of the
It is the most effective methods of killing microorganisms. Dry heat is used to sterilize surfaces, and materials, e.g., glass Petri dishes and culture vessels, and metal surgical instruments. Dry heat spears more slowly than moist heat which destroys microorganisms by coagulating their proteins and also destroys microorganisms by oxidizing their chemical residents. Moist heat spears more quickly than dry heat, and is used to sterilize culture solutions and agar preparations, and to sterilize surgical instruments etc. Pressurized steam heat is needed to kill bacterial endospores.
Q1- transduction , transformation , and conjugation in microorganisms . Give a definition and main differences with example . - Transduction : it`s a process of transform the genetic material in bacterial cell where the transform of genetic material occur by virus (bacteriophage) , where the virus transfer the genetic material from the host cell to another host cell , where the virus will initiate another cycle of infection . example : prophages , GTA ( gene transfer agent) . - Transformation : it’s the process when bacterial cell are able to uptake the free DNA from their environment example : B. subtilis is an important for bacterial genetic study but they are not naturally competent , and the transform of these stain is possible only by highly unnatural means such as protoplast electroportion .
INTRODUCTION Antibiotic as is any chemical or drug that can be used to effectively either halt the growth of, destroy toxins from or destroy the entire organism. They are said to be narrow or wide/extended in their range of activity depending on if they act on a limited number of organisms or a vast number of organisms respectively. Antibiotics resistance occurs when a microbe or a group of microbes develop a mechanism to reduce the potency or efficacy of a drug which was once effective as its treatment.  Most antibiotics in the market today usually target an exclusive biology of an organism in such a way that the drug will affect the organism specifically and do little or no harm to the host, so in any event an organism mutates genes coding
DNA also can directly repaired damaged bases. A repair enzyme recognizes incorrect structure in the DNA and directly converts it to a correct structure. Base exision repair involves a category of enzymes known as DNA-N-glycosylacases. The enzymes identify the damaged base and cleave the bond between it and the sugar in the DNA. Then it will remove one base, excises several around it and then replaces it with several new bases using DNA polymerase adding to 3’ ends and then closing it with ligase attached to 5’ end.