2. In criminological/sociological study, what are some of the limitations to defining “crime” as only those actions in violation of criminal law? Do you feel that criminologists should limit their study in this way? Support your response. Crime is learned from a person’s interaction within a given society.
According to Marxist theory, the real criminals are the ones who take advantage of general population to make a profit, not the ones who are behind bars in prison. It suggests that the ruling class of society assumes control over the general population by enforcing laws and norms which must be complied with, otherwise people would be punished. They impose social control using institutions such as church, police, schools, prisons and the justice system. It is argued that petty crimes, such as shoplifting, are committed by people who do not have much power or influence in society, and, therefore, are easily detected because the system focuses more on them and considers them more serious. On the other hand, the so-called “white collar crimes” tend to be ignored because they are committed by powerful and influential members of society.
The due process model is seen to focus on the suspect whereas the crime control model focuses on the society. This paper analyzes these two models and based on the rate of crime in the society, makes recommendations as to which is the best model in criminal justice. The principle in law that one is innocent until proven guilty has created much discourse. There are those who feel that the moment that one is arrested, there is reasonable belief that they committed the crime. However, there are those who feel that just as the principle states, one is, and should be taken as a victim and the outcome could be either way: guilty or not guilty.
Instead the focus was on what was facilitating it-such as criminogenic environments due to economic hardship, broken homes, and potential mental conflicts. Thus the Progressive period was more interested in the government treating rather than judging the offender, and felt that keeping one incarcerated made it impossible to rehabilitate them into normal society. Consequently, probation, parole, and indeterminate sentencing became solutions to crime. The medical model views crime as being caused by underlying psychological factors. This placed a strong reliance on psychological remedies for crime, including psychological analysis, diagnosis, and treatment of the root causes of criminal behavior similar to the treatment of a patient with a mental illness.
This may be because of intimidation, blackmail or embarrassment among many reasons. As far as crime is concerned, it is defined by the law. Deviance is unexpected behaviour, but not exactly considered criminal. Many consider crime as a social problem – a problem as defined by society, such as homelessness, drug abuse, etc. Others would say crime is a sociological problem – something defined as a problem by sociologists and should be dealt with accordingly by sociologists.
Control theory suggests that people with weak ties to family or society are more likely to engage in criminal activity oppose to those with a strong family bond or community relation. Furthermore, it states that behavior is affected by what an individual wants the most at any given time. The broken windows theory is also related to the control theory. The broken windows theory states that having an ordered and maintained society will prevent crime from happening. Even small cosmetic changes such as a broken window can change the entire environment.
The strengths of this theory is that it shows that illeagal opportunities are structured by society, it indicates why people become involved in a particular crime, and also presents ways to prevent deviant crime and behavior. A few weaknesses of the theory is that it doesn’t explain why people don’t break laws when faced with poor social environments and why deviant hate groups exists. Juviniles with lower social class are more likely to enter the penal system than middle and upper class juviniles. Deviant criminal activity that best fits this theory is gang affiliation. Most lower class juviniles do not have a positive role model to keep them on the right path and their parents
The ego attribute controls the id effects by establishing boundaries. The last attributes are called super-ego which judges our situations through morality, ("Varying Theories on Crime," n.d). Social Structure Theory originated in the Sociological Theory area which takes a diverse posture stating that if biologic factors clarify criminal activities, then why does most criminal activities are found in bad neighborhoods? The ideology of this theory refers to conditions like: urban conditions, conflict, and criminal behavior, ("Varying Theories on Crime,"
The Social Psychology of False Confessions: Compliance, Internalization, and Confabulation is a study conducted by Saul M. Kassin and Katherine L. Kichel of Williams College. This experiment explores social influence and the impact it has on confessions. As a fundamental right in the United States, people are given several rights and if broken, various punishments can be implemented. Criminal confessions are usually self-incriminating or coerced, yet these can easily be swayed by other factors. Social influence can directly affect suspects and can potentially cause people to confess to crimes they did not commit.
The emphasis of socioeconomic status in capital punishment cases plays a critical role in the evaluation of an inmate’s disposition and the biases that occur from the impacts of wealth. Economic standing impacts an individual to be drawn to or propelled from crime, dependent on the influence from the surrounding community. The initial socioeconomic influence on destitute areas provokes individuals to live a life of crime, which ultimately brings many crimes to be charged with capital punishment convictions. Occupational prestige and education stand amongst several other factors that account into the economic evaluation of death row inmates and the social impact left on an individual. In addition to the initial impact from socioeconomic upbringing, the decision-making in court can result in juror bias against the defendant.
Yes, I would agree that some people are just evil, but that is NOT the majority. That is a very, very small minority group and for that, they should serve the appropriate amount of time (Just Deserts). Rehabilitation focuses on the idea that, for the most part, criminals commit crimes due to factors outside their control. I argue that the majority of life choices made by criminals’ and noncriminals’ alike are because of these outside factors. These outside factors shape our actions in all cases and must be adjusted to help people’s process in society.
According to Steffensmeier, organized crime is one of the fields that are very difficult to evaluate, conduct research on, and develop policy recommendations. An organization called RICO (Racketeering Influenced and Corrupt Organizations) are aimed at organized crime but they do not define organized crime, instead they address “racketeering.” The key elements of organized crime are those involved in associate for the purpose of engaging in criminal activity on a sustained basis, they engage in enterprise crime by illegally providing goods or services, these activities require a fair amount of cooperation and organization. In addition, to size and degree of formal structure, criminal organizations can be identified and compared relative to their scope of criminal activities. Many of the groups specialize in prostitution and drugs, when other groups range from gambling, extortion, drug trafficking and other financial scams. Criminal organizations, in other words network, vary in terms of their geographic scope – local, national or transnational.
Crime is often found in every society. Why? Theorist argues that: crime occurs because members of society find it hard to comply with rules of behavior or they get a self-fulfillment breaking it. Crime/deviance can be an indication that an area needs attention. Also, it can bring about solidarity or togetherness in society.
Basically without crime, people would not realize what the definition of right and wrong behavior is. Having crime in our society makes us realize our morals and basically institutes the idea in our head that criminal acts are not appropriate behaviors. Durkheim’s theory about crimes being necessary in our society is relevant