Lieutenant Nun: Memoir of a Basque Transvestite in the New World is a memoir by Catalina de Erauso detailing her experiences during the early 1600’s in South America and Spain. She was born in 1585 into a well off Basque family and her parents were native-born residents of San Sebastian Spain. This book is one of the earliest known autobiographies by a woman and details the events that took places when Catalina escaped a Basque convent dressed as a man. During this time she served as soldier in the Spanish army, traveling to Peru and Chile, and even becoming a gambler. Being that my major falls under sociology, I will be looking at themes surrounding the constraints of females in Spanish society in the 1600’s and how this affects Catalina.
She then decided to take a journey to Vaucouleurs in May 1428 and was rejected by Robert de Baudricourt. Joan got a small group of followers who believed her claims to be virgin and she was determined to save France. After the rejection by Baudricourt, she cut her hair, in the style that today is known as the “bob”, and dressed in men 's clothes to make an eleven day journey to Chinon. Chinon was the site of the Prince’s palace and also an enemy territory. At Chinon Joan had promised Charles of Valois that she would be there to watch him be crowned at Reims. “Reims was the traditional site of French royal investiture.” (History.com.) She asked Charles to give her an army to take to Orleans so she could conquer and save
Joan of Arc was a simple peasant girl the youngest of five children born into a family of pious parents whom worshipped God in a in a village near the province of Lorraine, in a far off village known as Domremy. Joan having been born a peasant and in a village, not in a city had very little education and with there were being two different factions of the French people following the two different kings, Kings Charles VII and King Henry V. Even with Joan’s little education, she believed that King Charles VII should be king because she had been given messages from the visions received from the saints of Margeret, Catherine and Michael that Charles was the one true king chosen by God.
Joan of Arc was born in 1412 in Domremy France. Her father Jacques d’ Arc and mother Isabelle were poor farmers, so Joan would have grown up with daily responsibilities. Her mother also taught her to become a talented seamstress.
Cleopatra and Joan of Arc are two of the most powerful and influential women to ever have lived. Although each one led for their own purposes, and in their own style, the consequences of their actions still have ripples in today’s world. Whether it be because of Cleopatra’s beauty or ruthlessness, or Joan of Arc’s faith and purity both women are considered iconic figures in the global community. Throughout time both Joan of Arc and Cleopatra have been documented as extremely influential characters in history. Cleopatra and Joan of Arc were iconic in different ways, for different reasons but it is undeniable that without them, the world wouldn’t be as it is today.
Although, many people that were condemned weren’t actually apart of the Communist Party, (under McCarthyism around 1950-1954) they got blacklisted or lost their jobs. This social injustice is also portrayed in The Crucible as its characters face the Salem Witch Trials. Arthur Miller wrote The Crucible as his own reaction to the injustice of McCarthyism. Miller’s purpose was to show how people accused each other with false denunciations because of their fear, jealousy and solely hatred of one another under McCarthyism.
In Act IV of The Crucible Elizabeth Proctor was accused and found guilty. In many cases its very difficult to tell if people are innocent or not. Even though the accused swear under oath, doesn’t mean that they will keep that promise. In some cases an innocent person is said to be guilty and are punished for a crime that they did not commit.
In the courts, the judges only believed the witnesses, which sometimes are the accusers, and insubstantial evidence brought from the witnesses. As a matter of fact, this is very dangerous because the authorities could abuse the victims until they confessed. For instance, if the accused one recited the Bible or the Lord’s Prayer to the judges in the court, then they were not a witch. In other words, the court judges were biased because they only trust the confession the accused ones make, which is unfairly prejudiced for the innocent people. “Rather than try people in the order they were arrested, the court started with the accused with the strongest cases against them” (“The Salem Witch Trials, scholarly articles). This was the concept in how the court charged the cases of each victim. The judges only listened to the girls that lies and just kill everyone that was accused, making the trials unfair. The trials were biased because it all started when a slave, Tituba, was accused of witchcraft. As a slave, she could not defend herself. In fact, many of the accused witches were people who have different religious beliefs from the Puritans or the town dislike the person. Thus, making it easier to have them convicted of
Preceding the Salem witch trails, the court fell under attack. Those who made confessions began to recant them. Though they played a direct role in the executions of innocent people, they insisted that they only made accusations out of force. In Document 77, Margaret Jacobs describes the ordeal of how she was told to either confess or be hanged. In another record, “Declaration of Mary Osgood, Mary Tyler, Deliverance Dane, Abigail Barker, Sarah Wilson, and Hannah Tyler,” the girls contend, “There was no other way to save our lives, as the case was then circumstanced, but by our confessing ourselves to be such and such persons as the afflicted represented us to be; they out of tenderness and pity persuaded us to confess what we did confess”
From June – September 1692, 19 men and women have been convicted of witchcraft. They were carted to Gallows Hill, a barren slope near Salem Village for hanging. Dozens were languished in jail for months without trials. These innocent people were killed for something they did not do. There was no fair trial on their behalf. There was only one man to say if you were guilty or not and no one went against what he said. If they did, they knew that he would accuse them next and
Let me set the scene for you: you’ve just been accused of a crime you didn’t commit, there’s no reliable evidence to prove you committed said crime, and yet you’re still being found guilty. While this isn’t as common today as it was in the past, it still tends to happen. Some of the most famous cases of this happening are the Salem Witch Trials and the trial of the West Memphis 3. While these are very different events we, as people, can learn many different lessons from both events. The witch trials were started and spread by fear and hysteria. Townspeople were accusing people who didn’t go to church, who didn’t seem to follow the Puritan ways exactly, or people who they disliked and wanted to get revenge on. Hundreds of innocent people
Originally, during Colonial times, policing in the United States consisted of little more than night watches. These watches weren’t very effective, as watchmen often drank or slept on duty, and many of the volunteers were only there as a way to get out of military service or helping with the watch as a form of punishment (Potter, 2013). It wasn’t until 1838 that the city of Boston established the first formal organized police force in America. Other cities soon followed, and by the 1880s, all major metropolitan areas had a formal police force.
Joan Of Arc was born on the 6th of January 1412, in Domremy, France. She had three brothers along with her one sister, her father (Jacques d’ Arc) and his wife, (Isabelle, also known as Romée) they all lived together on a farm. Her parents were farmers of rented land. Joan was taught important skills from her mother. Rarely leaving the family farm due to her responsibilities Joan took care of the farm animals and became a skilled seamstress.
Staged in London this year, a new version of Calderon De La Barca 's play Life is a Dream, retells it from the point of view of its main female character. The website for Rosaura proclaims her as "one of the strongest characters in the history of theatre", (REF), giving the impression that Calderon, despite his strong absolutist and catholic views, believed in some equality of the sexes. After all, in the original play, when Rosaura bursts onto the stage, dressed like a man, swearing and climbing down a mountain side, she is signalling to the audience that this is a female character breaking down all the restrictions placed on her gender in 17th Century Spain. Conversely, by the play 's end, this feisty female is submitting meekly to marriage,
The year 1660 marked an important juncture in the English theatre. Not only was monarchy restored in England but Charles II also allowed women to enter the stage. Thus, women replaced the young adolescent males who cross-dressed in order to portray the women characters in Shakespeare’s plays. Although, the cross-dressing motif might seem strange to some, this practice can be traced back to Ancient Greeks who did not allow women to enter the stage and therefore, men had to wear costumes and masks to represent women. Shakespearean critics, on the other hand, have been divided over the use of ‘cross-dressing’ in his plays. Questions like does Shakespeare use