Since they were Republican, they had a natural resentment at the New Deal and found the NIRA and the AAA (Agricultural Adjustment Agency) unconstitutional. After his second election, Roosevelt made some bad, public decisions like trying to ‘pack the court’ by attempting to appoint six judges who would vote in his favour. Interestingly, the Supreme Court voted in favour of some policies of the New Deal like pensions in the Social Security Act. There was minor opposition from within the Democratic Party as well. In 1934, the American Liberty League was established7, supported by many wealthy businessmen and conservative Democrats like Alfred Smith and John Davis.
For example, in Ritchie v. People (1895), the Illinois Supreme Court rejected the eight-hour provision from the Law of 1893, because it violated the Fourteenth Amendment by depriving women of freedom of contract, which is derived from the due process clause (A14.1). The decision rooted from the larger political battle occuring at the time- most wealthy businesses and political leaders did not support protective laws - which led to a display of false paternity/equality by the justices. In dismay, Florence Kelley rejected that the Fourteenth Amendment could be used in such a manner, and said, “The measure to guarantee the Negro freedom from oppression has become an insuperable obstacle to the protection of women and children” (W15). In the campaign for protective rights for laborers, the ruling from Ritchie v. People marked a defeat, but not an end. In 1908, Kelley, and the NCL, sought redemption through the case of Muller v. Oregon (case description), and picked an attorney, Louis Brandeis, who “seemed like a champion to fight her battle in court” (W26).
With the Congressmen winning their case the executive branch appealed it to the U.S. Supreme Court, which heard the case immediately “because the act directed the Court to hear as soon as possible any suit challenging its constitutionality”. The court dismissed that case, Raines v. Byrd on May 27, 1997 because the court did not feel that the congressmen were “the right litigants”. After the Court made their decision, President Clinton invoked the act and cancelled more than 80 items that included money for New York City hospitals and a tax break for potato farmers in Idaho. This angered the parties involved and they filed to sue under one consolidated case against the act and the Court held that the law was an unconstitutional delegation of
The Taft-Hartley Act limited the practices of unions. It fought against the arrangement closed shop where only union members were being hired. This caused various right-to-work laws to be established in many states like the union shop agreements which allowed nonunion members to be hired. The act also created a set of procedure when it came to strikes. It gave
The $2.13 per hour figure is true, but waiters/waitresses never see that amount. It is required statewide that any minimum wage employee earn at least $9 (“Massachusetts Law about Minimum Wage”). No matter how complex the author makes the convention of tipping seem, no one is getting paid $2.13 in actuality. The only purpose of using that statistic is to exacerbate the idea of feeling sorry for these individuals. Following that reference, the author sets blame upon management and restaurant chain executives.
They both went to jail for what they thought was right, Thoreau only spent the night in jail, but Gandhi went to jail for two
History of the minimum wage in the USA The first attempt to establish a federal minimum wage was in 1933 as part of the National Industrial Recovery Act but it wasn’t the first in the US history asMassachusetts passed minimum wage laws in 1912 covering only women and children. The 1933 Act introduced a $0.25 per hour standard was set,but it was ruled unconstitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court because of restricting the employers ' rights to set the price for their labor.
It wasn’t until the Great Depression and the competition between adults and children for the job, that the labor laws were amended to exclude children. In 1938, congress passed the Fair Labor Standards Act, prohibited children under 14 to work. (scholastic.com) In the 1940s John Caffey noticed
John Steinbeck’s novella Of Mice and Men is a tale of two itinerant workers trying to achieve a shared dream in the dust bowl region of the United States during the Great Depression. In the decade preceding, the 1920s, women had gained rights and defied societal standards, but were still not considered as equals to men. As the decade turned, this inequality remained, perhaps worsened by the Great Depression. The severe economic recession rendered many working class men jobless, and therefore powerless as they were no longer supplying their household income. The only way they could have exerted ‘power’ and maintained their position in society was to assert dominance over women through derogatory behavior that was widely accepted (history).
John Ross once said "Brothers: The tradition of our Fathers . . . tells us that this great and extensive Continent was once the sole and exclusive abode of our race. . . . Ever since [the whites came] we have been made to drink of the bitter cup of humiliation; treated like dogs . . . our country and the graves of our Fathers torn from us . . . through a period of upwards of 200 years, rolled back, nation upon nation [until] we find ourselves fugitives, vagrants and strangers in our own country. . . .”
The growing sense of despair and hopelessness resignated as the United States was just beginning to come out of the Great Depression, and many were left homeless and without work. The Roosevelt Administration saw the two issues and had an idea that would still be prominent and controversial for years to come: they believed that it was the government’s responsibility to supply electricity where private investors would not. On May 11, 1935, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt approved an executive order creating the REA, or the Rural Electrification Administration, which would provide loans and similar forms of assistance so that groups of farmers could build their own electrical distribution systems. This decision was highly criticized as many believed it would unfairly hurt the business of private companies, and several members of congress were opposed to the government’s interference in the economy, fearing it would lead to something close to socialism. Nevertheless, under master mechanical engineer and head of the REA, Morris Llewellyn Cooke, the act went into place as one of the most successful government programs ever enacted, additionally the system created then was a smaller scale version of the system stilled used
Davidson states that women on welfare do not sit around or are not of specific ethnicity, but rather they find themselves penniless in certain life circumstances. They usually stay in system for couple of years and often attend schools. Some of them may return to the system, simply because the jobs pay less than welfare and have no health benefits. The second argument that Davidson presents is that “welfare encourages teen pregnancy and large dependent families” (1997). Her findings show that it is impossible to live off the welfare and the monthly allowances would not even cover the diapers’ expenses.
I stand to believe that minimum wage should be raised. Would you believe that a worker’s beginning salary is the same as it was in 1999? It is! The thing crazier than that is the costs of living have tripled while minimum wage hasn’t budged a bit. It is outrageous people get paid the same amounts of money all these years but continue to raise prices and expect them to survive in the world.
The Minimum Wage Debate Raising the minimum wage would strengthen the economy and help lift the working family. Anyone who works a full time job, which pays minimum wage, should be capable of supporting themselves and their families. Single parents do not always have the resources or finances to get childcare beyond their child’s school day, which makes it hard for them to work beyond their child’s school day hours. There is also the issue of the extra financial burden placed on them to pay for childcare.