In 1909, the NAACP started its legacy of fighting legal battles to win social justice for African-Americans. The most significant of these battles were won under the leadership of Charles Hamilton Houston and his student, Thurgood Marshall. Nathan Margold found that, the facilities provided for blacks were always separate, but never equal to the facilities provided for whites, violating Plessy’s “separate but equal” principle. Thurgood Marshall continued the Association’s legal campaign, and during the mid-1940s, in Smith v. Allwright, Marshall successfully challenged the “white primaries,” which prevented African Americans from casting a vote in several southern states. In 1946 Thurgood Marshall also won a case in which the Supreme Court ended
During a time period of social injustices Lily, the main character in Sue Monk Kidd's The Secret Life of Bees, inserts herself into the home of a family of African American sisters to uncover the mystery surrounding her mother. Because of Lily's young age when her mother dies, as she gets older she has an obession of trying to figure out who her mother really was. She has little recollection of the time they spent together and one day she comes across a picture with the words "Tiburon S.C" on the back. This is the moment her real journey begins. Lily sets off to finds this place her mom has visited to discover new things about her mom, but what she actually does is learn about herself.
Benjamin Mays had a huge impact in the 50s-60s Civil Rights Movement. He was the president at Morehouse College, a mentor to Dr.Martin Luther King Jr., and was a respectable figure to Dr. MLK Jr. Benjamin Elijah Mays was born on August 1, 1894 in South Carolina, and was the youngest of eight children. His parents, Louvenia Carter and Hezekiah Mays, were former slaves and former tenant farmers. Benjamin went to school at Bates College, and earned his Bachelor of Arts degree in 1920. Later, he went to the University of Chicago and earned his Master of Arts degree in 1925.
Thurgood Marshall, Roy Wilkins, A. Philip Randolph, Rosa Parks, Dr. Martin L. King, Jr., among others, have become household names as pioneers of the Civil Rights Movement. Mention of Thurgood Marshall immediately conjures in mind the historic United States Supreme Court Case, Brown vs. Board of Education. A. Philip Randolph immediately reminds us of the “Second Emancipation Proclamation”, Executive Order 8802 which gave thousands of Negroes access to jobs in manufacturing plants receiving contracts from the defense department during World War II. Rosa Parks is inextricably associated in the minds of millions with the Montgomery Bus Boycott. And who cannot think of Dr. Martin L. King together with the March on Washington and
During the first half of the twentieth century segregation was the way of life in the south. As sayd in document number 1, Alabama and many other states in the US, especially in the south, were segregated. What it meant is that black people and other minorities were separated from white people. For example, they had to eat in different restaurants, they had to go to black schools and they had to sit in the back of the buses. And this wasn’t all, not only they had to sit in the back of the bus they also had to give up their seat in case there weren’t enough empty seats for whites.
The Emancipation Proclamation was declared on january 1, 1863 by the president of united states. This move by the President declared that "all persons held as slaves within any State or designated part of a State, the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United States, shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free.” It was actually intended for the most of the people that would free the slaves, not to the slaves itself. This speech took place during the Antislavery movement in 1960’s. The main leaders during this Antislavery movement were Abraham Lincoln and Fredrick Douglas.
The Protestant Preachers began to attack individual sins like drinking and believed that wealth should be distributed to people in need. Walter Rauschenbusch and Washing Gladden believed power and wealth should be equal and competition was not Christian like. Their efforts looked to expand the church’s appeal to the lower class citizens. They wanted to make the lower class more aware of their morals and to live as Jesus would live. The churches began to establish programs for lower class citizens to alleviate poverty, fight child labor, and make better housing available to those in need.
Through a series of successful campaigns in the early to mid-1960s, The Jim Crow Establishment had been withered away. However at this time, even though the massive legislative gains, blacks were still systematically denied the right to vote through the use of violence. In order to combat this, Leaders from all across the movement actively sought out ways to counteract the remnants of Jim Crow. In the Summer of 1964, the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party was created.
Earlier antislavery movements proposed for a slow emancipation of slaves. However, the abolitionist movement called for immediate emancipation of all slaves. This made the movement more radical, and ultimately arose hostility between the Northern and Southern States (History.com, 2009). Previous antislavery advocates thought that a gradual emancipation was best in order to remain peace between the states.
After the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863, African Americans were still being treated unjustly and needed direction. While many of them were enslaved and all of them were segregated, they yearned for a way to achieve equality. Booker T. Washington is the most influential African American leader during the civil rights era. Born in 1856 to a white man and a slave cook, he had equality flowing through his veins, but his leadership and status took time to develop. Upon slavery’s end, his family moved to West Virginia where he became a salt packer and coal miner.