This means that human action can be theoretically determined if we know all the events and conditions leading to it (Velasquez, 2002). In other words, the idea of a free will or the option of choice is simply an illusion. The freedom that we think we have is in actually fact ignorance of the laws that govern us. So far, the theory seems pretty logical and is still somewhat arguably palatable. However, the fact that determinists also believe that there is no such things as human responsibility makes it difficult for us to accept.
He was helpless as he needed the kite as trophy for his father, to prove that he is ‘Baba’s perfect son’. Amir is further instigated by his guilt and greed to hide the watch under Hassan’s pillow, thus stealing the truth from him. Shadows and darkness are once again used in this scene to emulate the shift from the innocent friendship Amir had with Hassan to the guilt and shame that he bears as he walks in the shadows with his head low, as though in shame. As he moves towards the quarters, he glances towards the sides. Amir’s particular body language shows that he wants this deed to be seen by no one.
In contrast to the belief that many people adopt as a principle, the presence of human kind in the universe has no meaning or purpose. As a requirement of existentialism, ignoring the God and religious beliefs lead to a confusion and chaos among human beings. Marvin Perry summarizes Jung’s idea about this issue: “Modern man and women suffer from a sense of religious emptiness. Science has caused them to doubt inherited religious beliefs, but it provides no answer to the questions of life’s meaning.” and continues “…to overcome the feeling of being adrift in a meaningless existence, Jung urged an inner experience, a journey into the interior realms of the unconscious” (321). People always seek for a superior force to deal with the conceptions
Man is unwilling to believe them, He is having a decentered consciousness, the Ideals/ Theories which he believed so far have failed to offer him any solution. But at the same time postmodernism never refuses t0 accept the existence of truth, justice, morals, etc. But laments that there is no any foundation to form all these, There are no rules, morals and laws suitable for all periods and for all people. Pinter’s plays frequently contained awkward pauses, ambiguous or confusing language and circuitous or endlessly wandering plots. He used these techniques to present the unreliability of language which was a theme explored by post-structuralists, deconstructionists and postmodernists.Harold
However, it is essential to him that he is happy to be different and have his own interpretation of the world that he is living in. The narrator thinks that human has no value and we all absurd because we are living in a world of absurdity. Meursault is free from worry, he does not show any importance towards his mom’s death, he does not want to see his mom’s body, which is absurd that everyone wants to see their loved ones for the last time when they die. Nonetheless, not Meursault, he does not live his life fully and he does not appreciate what he possesses, he is a lack of sentiment and emotion. The reason he shoots the Arab man and what lesson the process through the trial teaches him.
I said ‘No.’ He sat down indignantly. He said it was impossible… and if he ever were to doubt it, his life would become meaningless.” (Camus 120) This is shows the absolute lack of sympathy the magistrate must feels toward Meursault which symbolizes the way that his peers or any individual in society view his viewpoints on life. The magistrate ultimately represents the way society feels threatened by an individual with immoral beliefs, or even by an individual who possesses beliefs different from their own. This scene also provides a foil of the magistrate and Meursault. They have two very different standpoints on religion.
The notion of Caulfield’s desire to live as a “poor deaf-mute bastard”(Salinger 1994:179) where “they’d leave me alone”(Salinger 1994: 179) is a prime example of Caulfield’s wish to become detached and alienated from those around him. Through alienation and detachment from those around him, he avoids confrontation and interaction with people which he believes will be the saviour of his own self falling victim to phoniness. However, as Caulfield acts quickly to criticize and label others as, “that was the phoniest bastard I ever met in my life” (Salinger 1994:12), he does not realise that he is actually guilty of the phoniness that he so easily labels others with. Holden Caulfield exhibits a clear dislike for the idea of change, where he shows visible signs of fear towards this idea, “Certain things they should stay the way they are” (Salinger 1994:110). Caulfield finds safety and security in The Museum of Natural History, “I loved that damn museum” (Salinger 1994:108) as it an example of the ideal stagnant and predictable world that Caulfield longs for, “The best thing, though, in that museum was that everything always stayed right where it was” (Salinger 1994: 109).
What if life contributed to no meaning and the only point which matters is the existence happening during the present? To make things worse, as humans live, they breath, but as they die a salvation is received to their soul, and their existence is over. The Stranger by Albert Camus illustrates that the human soul exists in the world physically, therefore the presence or absence does not contribute to any particular event in life. Through, this thought the novel introduces Meursault, who alienates himself from society. He lacks concern for social conventions and is deprived of the physical bounding from people around him.
Nietzsche thought that Christian morals guided European humanity for the last 1,500 years (Bishop, 2012). Europeans had to make a noteworthy choice regarding the last man and the superman, between a realistic society dedicated to complete contentment or a higher but sad culture with superhuman possibilities (Bishop, 2012). Christianity was the first against particle and theoretical nihilism. Christianity gave purpose to people’s lives by granting them an absolute value, Christianity was able to explain and justify the evil and suffering in the world (Moroney, 1987). As time went by the spirit of truthfulness sprang from Christianity and eventually gave way to the rise of nihilism as people began to question the notion of God and the whole Christian culture (Moroney, 1987).
He displays his characters in various situations without any significance to their moral position of right and wrong. These characters reach their ends only as result of chance and not according to their moral position. Johnson‘s verdict is that it is always a writer’s moral duty to make this world a better place to live through his works. In his opinion Shakespeare could not perform his