Output are the behaviors of the person, acts as both external and internal, these behaviors can be measured, observed, or subjectively reported. Output behaviour becomes feedback to the system and may be either adaptive or ineffective responses. In addition, these responses may promote the
Introduction The physical stance, design stance, and intentional stance are the strategies that could be used to encounter with objects or systems as stated in the intentional system theory. Physical stance can be explained as using scientific or physical law to predict the outcome, while design stance is assuming that the entity has been designed to function in a certain way which it will work properly as designed. Prediction on behaviour of an entity can be made through treating the entity as if it was rational agent which the actions are governed by beliefs or desires in intentional stance. Each of these strategies is predictive and we used them to explain the behavior of the entity in question (Kind, 2004). This philosophical theory generated some subtle changes and effects to the instrumentalism approach.
Similarly, system thinking “needs the discipline of building shared vision, mental models, team learning, and personal mastery to realize its potential”. (Senge, 1994). Systems thinking provide “a conceptual framework, a body of knowledge and tools that has been developed ……to make the full patterns clear, and to help us see how to change them effectively” (Senge, 1994) Four dimension of Learning Activities Four Dimension of learning activities model by Wei H.C. The learning activities in an organization introduced by Wei H.C. were divided into four dimensions. The four dimensions include Organization Learning, Organization Leadership, Organization Culture and Organization Structure.
Leary, Wheeler and Jenkins (1986) conducted two studies to examine the relationship between an individual’s salient aspects of identity, and behavioral preferences. Both social and personal aspects of identities were considered for the purpose of these studies. According to Cheeks and Briggs (1982), the characteristics that form a person’s identity can be dichotomized into social and personal elements. Personal elements are those components of one’s self-definition that uniquely “belong” to an individual. These may include one’s beliefs, goals, abilities, and feelings, among other things.
Outcomes (relationships among the variables in the three categories) antecedents transactions, and outcomes (products: achievement, attitudes and motor skills). The model is shown in figure 6. Type of contingency Intended Data Observed Data Type of Contingency Congruence Contingency Contingency
According to Owen and Bandura, career decisions are complex ones, influenced by myriad factors, including family background, peer group achievement, cultural norms, personal aptitudes and educational attainment (Korkut-Owen, 2008, Bandura, et al, 2001). Krumboltz examined the influence of four categories of factors which influence an individual’s ability to benefit or access ‘learning experiences’. Influencing factors include genetic endowment and special attributes that are race, gender, physical, appearance & attributes. Next are environmental conditions and events .Other than that are learning experiences and task Approach Skills that include work habits, personal standards of performance and emotional responses (Krumboltz, et al’s, 1976). In choosing my future career, I have chosen the Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT) as a factor that influences me in making decision to choose my career goals.
The theory explains that factors which can affect the attainment of goals are roles, stress, space, and time” (Petiprin, 2016). King’s three systems King’s model has three major concepts namely; personal, interpersonal, and social systems. The personal system provides practical information on human beings like Perception, body image, self, learning, time, body image, personal space, growth and development. Interpersonal system concepts are interaction, communication, transaction, role, and stress (they are linked to small groups). Social systems are
From the point of view of the research object to the social psychology research, the scope of social psychology research can be divided as the following four aspects: individual social psychology and social behavior; social intercourse mentality and behavior; group psychology and applied social psychology. In social
Self-awareness involves staying at the top of one’s typical reactions to specific events, challenges, tasks and people. When one understands tendencies then it helps to quickly make sense of one’s emotions. An effective way of genuinely understanding one’s emotions is to spend ample time analyzing where those emotions come from and why they exist. Emotions usually come from somewhere. However, some come out of nowhere and it is important to understand why something triggers a reaction.
The idea is that the ‘stock of desired qualities and capabilities’ is upgraded and mindsets and attitudes are changed over time. As such, the capacity of an individual, organization, system or society is not stagnant, it changes under the influence of internal and external factors (Simister and Smith, 2010). To illustrate, through introducing key individuals the capacity of an organization may be strengthened. However, if these individuals leave that may also signify is that capacities will be lost. Capacity development activities are therefore applied to the stakeholders, such as individuals, organizations and communities to acquire skills and resources (Vincent-Lacrin,