Load deflection behavior The test results of Ultimate load and deflection are given in Table 4. It shows that the addition of fibers into the concrete increased the load carrying capacity and deflection at ultimate load. HSBC1 and HSBC2 specimens’ ultimate load is 24 kN the same value was obtained for the Hybrid fiber reinforced high strength concrete specimen – HYFBC2.1. The graphs are shown in Figure 6. When the beam is subjected to cyclic loading, the graphs are shown in Figure 7.
Introduction: The objective for the lab was to determine properties of materials by using a tension test. The properties that were determined was Young’s Modulus, ultimate tensile strength, and yield strength. Three aluminum alloys were tested. The first was the AA 2024 , which is high strength used in aerospace applications. The second specimen was AA 5052, which had low strength, but high ductility.
The construction methodology is the same with elastomeric bearings; however, the damping is increased by adding carbon block and other fillers. In addition, it has an adequate resistance to service loads. The damping characteristic is in between hysteric and viscous. The energy dissipation is linear and quadratic for hysteric and viscous, respectively. The energy absorption capability help reduced the earthquake energy transmitted to the superstructure.
The standard chemical composition and physical requirement for fly ash as defined in ASTM C 618 - 03 (2008) are shown in Table 2.7 and Table 2.8 below. Table 2.7: The chemical requirements in ASTM (ASTM C 618 – 03, 2008) Chemical Requirements Class N Class C Class F (SiO2 + Al2O3 + Fe2O3), minimum % 70.0 70.0 50.0 SO3, maximum % 4.0 5.0
In the period of 15 months after the earthquake in a careful analysis that compared the Hayward fault and that of 1906 earthquake; displays that there were horizontal to the fault in San Andreas. The report showed that the coseismic horizontal displacements are parallel to the fault of San Andreas with opposite sides of the fault that moved in opposite directions observed in the lateral offsets. The geologist Thatcher analyzed the information from the surveying records of the Commission and refined the distribution of the slip. The main principles that drive the knowledge and understanding of the 1906 earthquake come from the seismic hazard assessment principles. The principles explain that the earthquakes come under the continuous and long active faults from past earthquakes that had associated style offsets in faults.
As such, in the low temperature of α phase, the structural properties will incline towards the values observed for high temperature in β phase of FePO4. As the temperature increases, the tetrahedral form is being distorted by vibrations where the cell parameters and volume of α phase increases in a non-linear manner, it causes the change in angle and length of bond of the FePO4 structure. As the α-β phase transition reaches the temperature of 980K, the tetrahedral angle decreases and the FE-O-P bridging angles increases. The main influence to the thermal expansion of FePO4 is known as angular variation where there is change between the two symmetrically-independent intertetrahedral bridging angles and its tilt angles. Thus, in relevance to temperature dependence on thermal expansion, the temperature is indirectly dependent on the angular variations of its bridging angles and tilt angles.
FEA Treatment of Thermal Modeling The basis for thermal analysis in ANSYS is a heat balance equation obtained from the principle of conservation of energy. The finite element solution performed via Mechanical APDL calculates nodal temperatures, and then uses the nodal temperatures to obtain other thermal quantities. The ANSYS program handles all three primary modes of heat transfer: conduction, convection, and radiation. Mesh was created in Ansys. The mesh had 144005 elements.
For the directions 11 and 33 it is reciprocal of the modulus of elasticity. It is given in the following form: SE11 denotes the elastic compliance for stress and strain perpendicular to the polarization direction under a constant electric field. f) Piezoelectric coupling “k” This coefficient “represents the ability of a piezoceramic material to transform electrical energy to mechanical energy and vice versa”. This applied to piezoelectric materials in general, not only piezoceramics in
It then moves on to non-uniform plastic deformation as necking starts to occur and when it reaches the fracture stress, the aluminium alloy experiences a ductile fracture.Aluminium alloy experience ductile fracture as it has high tensile strength, which holds the metal atoms together resisting deformation, hence when it has reached its unbearable tensile stress, the aluminium alloy would then fracture. Aluminium alloy has the highest Young's modulus compare to the other 2 specimens. -40-200204060801001201401600 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25Stress (MPa)StrainoffsetAlAlloy Polystyrene (PS) Polystyrene undergoes elastic deformation with little plastic deformation before experiencing a brittle fracture as seen on the graph. This is due the high young's modulus polystyrene has, as it has a benzene-ring side group that forms strong intermolecular van der waal's forces of interaction, however, that restricts polymer chain from rotating, hence when high amount of stress is applied to it, it would fracture, instead of sliding away to form new bonds with neighbouring atoms. -1001020304050600 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035 0.04Stress