This is over an order of extent less than the energy consumption of the communication part. Communication/data processing exchange between sensor nodes but more local processing implemented by one sensor node in order to enlarge the lifetime of the WSN. That energy efficient routing determination is more important than simple shortest path routing. Several strategies are prevalently employed for power aware routing in WSNs that Minimizing the energy consumed for each message
In order to counter this, organizations and businesses can utilize firewalls, proxy servers, and any other useful security software. Another threat to availability may arise from bottlenecks due to inadequate communication bandwidth to handle increases in traffic. Natural disasters such as fires, floods or even earthquakes can cause interruptions or even loss of data. For the system to be reliable and dependable it should have redundancies, power and data backups, and frequent hardware maintenance to make sure that everything is working at optimal capacity (Marian, 2007). Moreover, the communication bandwidths should be expanded to accommodate reasonable surges in data
Although there is no doubt that the wireless communication architecture will play a significant role in smart grid, the wireless network introduces additional vulnerabilities, given the scale of potential threats. Therefore, the physical layer security issue is of first priority in the study of smart grid and has already attracted substantial attention in the industry and academia. In this paper, we aimed to present a general overview of the physical layer security in the wireless smart grid and cover the effective countermeasures proposed in the literature of smart grid to date. We first investigate the security challenges from malicious attacks. Specifically, two typical forms of malicious attack in smart grid, namely, jamming and bad data injecting, are studied.
4 FORMULATION OF STRATEGY FOR THE SELECTED COMPANY (NALCO) 4.1 Formulations of the strategic options According to Wheelen and Hunger (2012, pp. 182), the TOWS matrix illustrates how the external opportunities and threats facing a particular corporation can be matched with that company’s internal strengths and weaknesses to result in four sets of possible strategic alternatives. Weihrich (1982) developed TOWS as the next step of SWOT in developing alternative strategies. The authors Ravanavar and Charanthimath (2012), further reinforced that, TOWS matrix provides the means to develop strategies based on logical combinations of factors relate to internal strengths (or weaknesses) with factors related to external opportunities (or threats). TOWS matrix identifies four conceptually distinct strategic groups: (1) Strength-Opportunity (SO), (2) Strength-Threats (ST), (3) Weaknesses-Opportunities (WO), and (4) Weaknesses-Threats (WT), for creating the alternative strategies.
In this paper, a study of video surveillance system which focusing on using wireless sensor network has been done. Out of these video surveillance system published in the literature, a total of 5 works has been reviewed and compared. Index Terms—
The wireless sensor equipment is often used in healthcare applications while applying many types of portable sensors. These wearable sensors are placed on the patient body surface. They are composed of small devices like heart rate, blood pressure, thermometer, glucose sensors to measure the biophysical patient state, as illustrated in Figure 1.1. Hospital Doctors can ask about a patient's history by an application on the devices that communicate with the patient's wearable sensor network. The deployed Sensor network on the patient body surface consists of several components like thermometer for measuring body temperature, an ECG monitor and an activity recognition system that uses accelerometers.
DESIGNING WIRELESS GAS DETECTION AND MONITORING SYSTEMS Prof Dr Dogan Ibrahim of the Near East University in Cyprus describes the basic principles of gas sensors and shows how a wireless gas sensor system can be designed INTRODUCTION Gas detector systems are mainly used to sense the presence of gas leak in an area and then take some action, such as automatically shut down the source of the gas, or sound an alarm to inform the people in the area where the gas leak is occurring. Common gas detectors used at homes sense potentially hazardous gas leaks such as the carbon monoxide and then sound an alarm to alert the people at home that hazardous gas has been detected so that doors and windows can be opened, the source of the gas can be shut if possible, and people are alerted early enough so that they can leave the area. There are many life threating toxic
The proposed system is designed such as to transmit a unique identification code to a controller where the controller learns the identity of each sensor and links it to an appropriate zone. Each sensor at times also transmits status information such as battery voltage, condition of the sensor switch, and other diagnostic messages. 4. The installed wireless security systems can be set up to record a voice message and to call programmed numbers in the event of an alarm. This saves the cost of a professional monitoring service.
Transmitting data is an inherently power-intensive process, and so the amount of data sent, and the frequency, is tied to the longevity of battery life for a remote sensor. As battery life is extended as the technology improves, sending larger amounts of data will be more feasible. Existing networks are also a limiting factor for IoT technology as the amount of data that can be sent is limited by both the distance from a receiving point and the bandwidth of a network, which typically have a negative
A Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) in general consists of processing component, communication components which is for routing purpose and for gateway purpose, graphical user interface (GUI) for visual inspection or manual user interaction, power source, sensors for capturing sensing parameters . BLUETOOTH