Many regard the publishing of this book as the event that founded Wicca. In this book Gardner called himself a witch and claimed to have been initiated into the Craft in 1939 by Old Dorothy Clutterbuck from the New Forest Coven. Gardner claimed that his Book of Shadows came to him in a fragmentary form and had to be supplemented with other material to fill in the gaps and to make it workable. His obvious influences were Aleister Crowley and the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, Margaret Murray and her books The Witch Cult in Western Europe and The God of the Witches, Charles Godfrey Leland and his book Aradia: Gospel of the Witches, along with his knowledge of ceremonial magic and masonry. Masonry played a fairly significant role in Gardnerian Wicca.
MasterFILE Elite. Web. 29 Oct. 2015. “Witchcraft and Magic in the Nordic Middle Ages” provides information on the amount of witchcraft that was in the middle ages. The main purpose of this article was to explain how and why witchcraft was important at this time.
Just as the Wars of Religion could have spawned the witch hunt across the Atlantic Ocean, Stanislav Andreski, as referenced by Jensen, thoroughly argues that the New England Witch hunts were initiated by the syphilitic shock from the 16th to 18th centuries. The scapegoat theory above relies on the idea of an disruption in society to introduce the alienation of groups, which this shock unquestionably does. An epidemic disease would have without doubt instilled fear into the colonists, especially due to their lack of knowledge about as well as the means to treat the disease. Finally, Andreski argues that the “sexual depravity” inherently associated with the spread of sexually transmitted diseases further ties the syphilitic shock to the pursuit of witches. These highly conservative societies, in which modesty and purity were valued above all else, would no doubt have associated those who practiced sexual promiscuity with the Devil, and ultimately drawn a straight line from this accusation to
223. http://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2005.066654 Accessed March 14, 2018 Mullin, Molly H. Culture in the Marketplace: Gender, Art, and value in the American Southwest. (Duke University Press, 2001) 24. Accessed March 14, 2018 https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=LFhZjdoDRAQC&oi=fnd&pg=PR9&dq=great+depression+advertising&ots=Fs6aJIrWHI&sig=hppo9EGwUp-t5qAOOpe8Hd-GIvc#v=onepage&q=great%20depression%20advertising&f=false Pfannestiel, Todd J. Rethinking the Red Scare: The Lusk Committee and New York's Crusade Against Radicalism, 1919-1923. (New York: Routledge, 2003).
In the first part, the author analyzes "long-term" and "middle-term" factors to re-produce the historical vision of early modern Europe. The analysis focuses on the social context of witch-hunt including the living environment of Western Europe in sixteenth and seventeenth centuries (geographical and climatic factors), social life (economic change the political turbulence) and the mentality of early modern Europe (cosmology, death and
C) as noted in Memorable Providences Relating to Witchcraft and Possessions by Cotton Mather, who at that time was a reputable expert in the "invisible world." It seems strange to 21st-century dwellers that people believed that witches could be identified by marks of the devil, as portrayed in an 1853 painting by T.H. Matteson (Doc. D). Today, it is frightening to imagine that people accused others of “bewitching your first husband
1, 2008, pp. 5–14, Microsoft Academic. Muhlhausen, David B. "The Death Penalty Deters Murder." The Ethics of Capital Punishment,edited by Christine Watkins, Greenhaven Press, 2011.
Both ‘The Chrysanthemums’ (by John Steinbeck from California, United States of America) and ‘Boys and Girls’ (by Alice Munro from Ontario, Canada) were stories made in the twentieth century, while ‘Young Goodman Brown” (by Nathaniel Hawthorne from Massachusetts, United States of America) was written during the ninetieth century. Evidently, the time by which the stories were written is extremely relevant because they provide an idea of what was the environment by which the author was composing. For instance, Nathaniel Hawthorne lived in Salem, the famous city of witches. This suggests the reader that Hawthorne had lived in the location where the witch trials were made. The author explicitly describes Satanism and witchcraft in ‘Young Goodman Brown’, for example: “Let us hear which will laugh loudest.
Title: How the Red Scare Relates to “The Crucible” Red scare formed in 1919 the climax of the Red scare is when the conflict between the Soviet Union and the United states intensifies During the late 1940’s and early 1950’s. It caused the Americans thinking that the communists are a big Threat to them. The United States took actions to prevent the red scare taking over the United States which caused McCarthyism to form. McCarthyism is a practice of false accusations without any proof. The play “The Crucible” is about the Salem witch trials which happened around in the early 1600’s, basically people are falsely being accused and killed because lawyers and people think that they had something to do with the devil.