Prior to Empress Wu’s thrust to power, women were subordinate to men. They were expected to listen to the men in their lives which included their father, their husband and then their son. The women were living in a male dominated society that they did not have the ability to change their status, or be above men in any way. However, that changed following the rule of Empress Wu she showed people then that women were capable of much more than what they were expected of prior to her rule. Although many men were angered by her rule because they worried their power and control would diminish.
Confucian ideas highlight the need to have a heir, thus the Emperor need to be sexually active, which explains the very large number of women in the inner court. However, according to Confucian ideals, the Emperor was not supposed to retain any pleasure from this encounters. therefore leading to a paradox hard to overcome by the Emperor and even harder to enforce by the outer court officials depute their moral concerns. Song women were also granted for the first time considerable legal rights. In fact, Song Dynasty is seen as a high point for women property point in China, further challenging Confucian traditional patrilinality.
Women were viewed as inferior in both societies. Ban Zhao’s Lessons for Women defined the role of women in Han China with dictated customs and traditions. Confucius stated that a women was submitted to the will of a man all her life. Women didn’t own property nor were they educated. The Gupta Empire also believed that women were subject to a man for their entire lives.
Finally, alongside Empress Nuharoo, she became the Empress of China after her son, Tung Chih succeeded the throne. The author tried to keep the events in the book historically accurate by doing thorough research and translating the decrees, edicts and poems from the original documents. There were a few main issues raised in the book. Firstly, it discussed the gender inequality in Ch’ing dynasty. In the patriarchal society, women were considered inferior to men and hence, were treated unequally.
In China, being an emperor means having total domination and authority to control the whole realm, however he likes and whenever he wants, the emperor of a dynasty almost could do everything. That’s why ancient China had so many dynasties lasted for several hundred years. Because Chinese dynasts can’t stand to live without power and authority, they thought that they were beyond everything else in the world, which led they were ultimately replaced by violence and betrayals. Mighty Qing Dynasty was conquered by its own blind confidence in itself, for not realized that its power had been stolen by foreign countries. On the contrast, when the feudal society was challenged by normal people in British, King of Britain made compromises with those who intended to take his authority.
In the second except, Injustices to Chinese Women by Qiu Jin, Jin introduced us to the hardships and unfair treatments that the women have to face under the Chinese society. In the beginning of her except, Jin basically stated that it is unlucky to be born as a girl in China. Throughout her descriptions, China was a male orientated society. Her statement about how men would kill their own children, just because they were born with a female gender, shows that women in China faced their injustices since the moment they got out of their wombs. Not only that, the beauty standard in China is really cruel and painful, as women have to bind their feet, as no men want to marry women with big feet.
For over 2000 years, China had operated under strict Confucian doctrines. In Confucianism, women are seen as inferior to men and the sexism that was rife in China can be clearly seen in the traditional characters of Chinese, where the characters for “greedy” (貪婪) , “dislike” (嫌), “evil” (妖) and “slave” (奴隸) all include the character for “female” (女). In 2000 years, 20 imperial dynasties and 557 emperors, only three women have ruled; Empress Lu in the 2nd century BC, Empress Wu in the 7thcentury AD and Empress Dowager Cixi in the 19th century AD. Like Empress Dowager Cixi, Empress Wu experienced extreme vilification after her death. Alicia Little of The Times believed that “future ages will hold the Empress Dowager in even greater horror than Empress Wu”.
An ideology that the Chinese Imperial system gave birth to was Confucianism. This ideology focused heavily on governmental obedience, education, and progress. It emphasized individuals to do things that would better the empire as a whole. According to a primary source given in the book written by Emperor Wendi on page 134, titled "Han Shu (History of the Han Dynasty)," it describes the role the emperor feels he needs to follow and how he thinks he 's failing. It states, "We have considered whether our administration has been guilty of some error or our actions of some fault.
During the time when patriarchy was dominating women were considered powerful within their domestic roles. Which means their decision were limited to their role and less considered in all other social activities. This meant that women are still treated as subordinates to men in a meaningful social institution like the church, government society and their family. Origin of western patriarchy. Gerda Lerner (1986) mentioned that in global perspective, patriarchy has had many different origins.
The Tsarist regime replied by a violent repression which resulted in the death of tens of demonstrators and led to a huge turnout of protests in the following days with the mass mobilization of workers, both men and women. A significant amount of soldiers then began to sympathize with the demonstrators and turned their back to the regime, what resulted into the abdication of the Tsar Nicholas II and the beginning of the Revolution. Thus, women have played a decisive role in the collapse of the regime, and would continue to play a a key role in the revolutionary cause. Indeed, from 1917, women’s political and economic involvement became more and more important. A bureau to promote revolutionary work among women workers and a Congress for all women workers were created in March 1917, with the support of Lenin.