Quoting Dr. Ambedkar from his article “The Rise and Fall of Hindu Women”, he argues that Hindu religion through its religious texts, such as the Manusmriti always degraded women. He thought of Manusmriti as a text which was anti-women and anti-Dalit text, where women and Dalits are degraded. Hindu scriptures like Ramayana & Mahabharata have women characters who are bold in their ways like Draupadi, Kaikeyi, even Sita for that matter and her decision to go back to mother Earth instead of giving a test of purity are instances where the woman is not agreeing to the norm laid by the society. This sort of portrayal is not given emphasis by our preachers. The character of Kaikeyi is not given any importance as she is a woman of ambition, same for Draupadi.
One of the first women to argue that women acquired all rights that Locke had granted to men, including education and participation in political life, was Mary Wollstonecraft, an English writer. Numerous French women assumed that they would achieve equal rights after the revolution. However, it did not bring the right to vote or contribute in public affairs. Since the gender roles did not change much at then end of the revolution, social reformers pressed for women's rights in Europe and North America. Americans like Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony in the United States decided to focus their energy the right to vote, also recognized as suffrage.
Life for women in 19th century was starting to look better. Industrial revolution gave women opportunity to become more independent. Women started fighting for rights and they wanted to be as equal as men. Women’s lives in 19th century improved in Europe by feminist movements, increase in education and new technology. Feminist Barbara Leigh-Smith Bodichon fought for women’s right to own property and change the laws of women’s marriage .
During the early to mid-nineteenth century women’s roles were seen to be confined to domestic affairs, but this phase would only lead to a stronger voice for women coming from within the home. The Second Great Awakening in the early 1800’s sparked a need for religion in the American culture. Women dominantly filled the churches leaving men to fend the vices of the world alone. In efforts to bring religion back, a new role for women was formed, the Cult of True Womanhood (Ginzberg 8). The ideal woman of this time period was a pure, feminine, and submissive woman that was always considered inferior to men mentally and physically (Lavender 1).
Although the ideology of African American womanhood failed to change due to the American system, white American women were gradually recognized for their labor contributions and their overall importance to the preservation of American society between the 1770s and the outbreak of the Civil
Another aspect she said is the practice of maithuna, “based essentially in the concept of magical power of sex and sheds significant light on the problem of sexual depictions... Without their practice no Tantric sadhana is considered fulfilled.”31 meaning of the yogini temple (Picture 632 “must have been prevalent in the region as manifested in the sculpture programs of the majority of the Khajuraho temples”, “the particular type of
Swadhinbhartrika is an independent woman, whose husband lives with her because of sexual attraction and never looks at other women. Hence, a woman is only complete with her man. Virhotkanthita, Kalahantarika,Vipralabdha are all aspiring for a Nayakaa, in their life. The classification of women is not done according to their productive roles. They have been given a secondary position according to their relations with their male counterpart.
Well, it brought women together through views and opinions to configure the women’s rights movement. The first women’s rights convention accelerated several other conventions that gave women a voice. The planning of those conventions initiated the creation of the Declaration of Sentiments. During the reform movement, the efforts made towards women’s rights were effective because of women’s
The Pelaya, Pulaya and Paravan (Parayan) were the worst affected by casteism. Pulayas and Parayans had to stand sixty-four feet away from the Brahmins. In Kerala, the Brahmins decided the fate of the people. P.K. Gopalakrishnan in his A Cultural Study of Kerala wrote, “The kings had only a titular role under the Brahmins and they were even controlled by them.