Republic of Rwanda: MGFP. NGP, 2010). Contrary to this viewpoint is the idea that women’s participation has been an effort by women themselves to achieve formal political power (Tamale 1999 and Tripp, 1994, 1998). The governments may have opened the door for women for formal politics but it was the individual efforts of women to seize on this opportunity through social movements and mobilization (Dan Ottemoeler, 1999). We agree with Dan Ottemoeler that the increasing role and activism of women in politics is for selfish interests of politicians who seek different ways on how to hold on to power.
are available have shown this trend that women are the least represented in local councils and local governance structures. According to Graff I, (2003), it is evident that if women are to enjoy justice, freedom, equal rights with men, they themselves have to do the necessary work and obtain these goals. No one, no matter how powerful, will be able to give women de facto equal rights and control of their own lives, these are rights every woman has to strive for. Political participation is one of the ways through which these goals can be achieved. Marginalization of women in politics is largely unfair because politics provides an avenue for women to have an input in laws that govern them, the ways they are applied, and the general affairs of
Women have experienced centuries of hardship on account of the oppressive dominion of American society. They have endured the absence of the fundamental American rights and unrestrained opportunities which were solely devoted to their male counterparts. However, women did participate in notable aspects of American society, including social movements and war. Beginning in the mid-1800s, women became extensively involved in social reform movements; by aggregating their social influence, they were able to counter detrimental institutions such as slavery and alcoholism. However, despite their aggressive action for reform, women were frequently hindered as their rights were stripped and their positions were taken for granted.
To conclude, feminism actually assists societies in viewing men and women as equal political players around the world. Citation Women Run the Show In a Recovering Rwanda. (2008, October 27). Retrieved April 02, 2017, from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/10/26/AR2008102602197.html Women in Parliaments: World Classification. (n.d.).
Since gender issues are concerned with promoting equality between the sexes and improvement in the status of both women and men in society (Chant 2007), there is thus the need for a comprehensive analysis of the problems faced by poverty stricken women. Societal resources and responses to the welfare of these women in Zambia also need to be addressed if the Millennium Development Goals (MDG’s) to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger and to promote gender equality and empower women are to be fulfilled. That being said, there is thus need for adequate and effective programmes to empower families and practical steps to redress the poverty situation that women in Zambia are facing as child poverty, starvation, child illness and general destitution, are all simply an extension of the conditions of their guardians/families. In as much as policy interventions should not be centred solely on the income dimension aspect of poverty, informal activities such as small scale stonecutting/quarrying as livelihood strategy in developing countries should inadvertently be given the importance they
Empowerment- Empowerment assumes different definitions depending on the socio-economic context; it can be a process, an outcome or an end in itself. The World Bank (2001) defines empowerment as the expansion of freedom of choice and actions and increasing one’s authority and control over the resources and decisions that affects one’s life. Kabeer (2001) views women’s empowerment as a process through which women gain the ability to take ownership and control of their lives. The Ministry of Women’s Affairs, Gender and Community Development, Government of Zimbabwe (2004) defines empowerment as the creation and expansion of one’s knowledge, skills decision making and other power bases that gives individuals the capacity and capability to exercise influence and leadership on their own. Women – According to Halpern (2012), women is a noun for a group that identifies adult female human beings.
They claimed that exerting indirect influence was not only time-consuming but also ineffective in enacting social reforms. With the vote, suffragists argued, it would be easier for women to oppose corrupt government practices and win social reforms (Kauffman). Women began to argue that with the opinion of women throughout the country, the government would advance. Men and women have a difference in opinion so having both involved in the government they could avoid future corruption and bad decision making. Women have a lot of different qualities than men so adding those to the government system would help the
The women’s suffrage movement allowed women to become Mayors, Members of Parliament, and even Prime Ministers. A growing number of women were elected in governmental positions ever since women were enfranchised. This protest movement was also relevant and durable because it helped to change the views society had on women. Which was one of the reasons why women fought for the vote. They wanted to change the views of women and started this by fighting for the
After the Zia era, another transformation in the political structure took place which brought many changes in the representation of women in politics. Women’s representation in the legislative assembly gradually developed from being 3% to 10% and not only they were able to take seats in the National assembly but they were also able to represent themselves at the provincial level. But, yet again from the time period starting from 1990 to 1997, no seats were allotted for women at neither the provincial nor the national level. A major difference was seen in the representation of the women in the year 2002 which was a military time period. Women’s representation according to statistics rose to 33% in this year.
Another factor contributing to female empowerment is when women find themselves in a position in which they can exercise power. In this case, what is being meant is, for example, women starting a business, an education, or women deciding to refuse something they do not want such as a marriage (426). The last factor mentioned entails the notion of women being considered fully equal to men, “at all levels where decisions are made about their lives’’ (p.427). Malhotra, Schuler and Boender, as mentioned in Almeida et al (9), have created a framework in which they explain the several dimensions of female